April 21, 2020  |  

Development of a Molecular Marker Linked to the A4 Locus and the Structure of HD Genes in Pleurotus eryngii

Allelic differences in A and B mating-type loci are a prerequisite for the progression of mating in the genus Pleurotus eryngii; thus, the crossing is hampered by this biological barrier in inbreeding. Molecular markers linked to mating types of P. eryngii KNR2312 were investigated with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA to enhance crossing efficiency. An A4-linked sequence was identified and used to find the adjacent genomic region with the entire motif of the A locus from a contig sequenced by PacBio. The sequence-characterized amplified region marker 7-2299 distinguished A4 mating-type monokaryons from KNR2312 and other strains. A BLAST search of flanked sequences revealed that the A4 locus had a general feature consisting of the putative HD1 and HD2 genes. Both putative HD transcription factors contain a homeodomain sequence and a nuclear localization sequence; however, valid dimerization motifs were found only in the HD1 protein. The ACAAT motif, which was reported to have relevance to sex determination, was found in the intergenic region. The SCAR marker could be applicable in the classification of mating types in the P. eryngii breeding program, and the A4 locus could be the basis for a multi-allele detection marker.

April 21, 2020  |  

Mitogenome types of two Lentinula edodes sensu lato populations in China.

China has two populations of Lentinula edodes sensu lato as follows: L. edodes sensu stricto and an unexcavated morphological species respectively designated as A and B. In a previous study, we found that the nuclear types of the two populations are distinct and that both have two branches (A1, A2, B1 and B2) based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence. In this paper, their mitogenome types were studied by resequencing 20 of the strains. The results show that the mitogenome type (mt) of ITS2-A1 was mt-A1, that of ITS2-A2 was mt-A2, and those of ITS2-B1 and ITS2-B2 were mt-B. The strains with heterozygous ITS2 types had one mitogenome type, and some strains possessed a recombinant mitogenome. This indicated that there may be frequent genetic exchanges between the two populations and both nuclear and mitochondrial markers were necessary to identify the strains of L. edodes sensu lato. In addition, by screening SNP diversity and comparing four complete mitogenomes among mt-A1, mt-A2 and mt-B, the cob, cox3, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, rps3 and rrnS genes could be used to identify mt-A and mt-B and that the cox1, nad1 and rrnL genes could be used to identify mt-A1, mt-A2 and mt-B.

April 21, 2020  |  

Comparative transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes involved in mycelium browning in Lentinula edodes.

Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushroom species in the world and contains useful medicinal components, such as lentinan. The light-induced formation of brown film on the vegetative mycelial tissues of L. edodes is an important process for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process in L. edodes, we characterized the morphological phenotypic changes in a strain, Chamaram, associated with abnormal brown film formation and compared its genome-wide transcriptional features.In the present study, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses of different vegetative mycelium growth phenotypes, namely, early white, normal brown, and defective dark yellow partial brown films phenotypes which were exposed to different light conditions. The analysis revealed the identification of clusters of genes specific to the light-induced brown film phenotypes. These genes were significantly associated with light sensing via photoreceptors such as FMN- and FAD-bindings, signal transduction by kinases and GPCRs, melanogenesis via activation of tyrosinases, and cell wall degradation by glucanases, chitinases, and laccases, which suggests these processes are involved in the formation of mycelial browning in L. edodes. Interestingly, hydrophobin genes such as SC1 and SC3 exhibited divergent expression levels in the normal and abnormal brown mycelial films, indicating the ability of these genes to act in fruiting body initiation and formation of dikaryotic mycelia. Furthermore, we identified the up-regulation of glycoside hydrolase domain-containing genes in the normal brown film but not in the abnormal film phenotype, suggesting that cell wall degradation in the normal brown film phenotype is crucial in the developmental processes related to the initiation and formation of fruiting bodies.This study systematically analysed the expression patterns of light-induced browning-related genes in L. edodes. Our findings provide information for further investigations of browning formation mechanisms in L. edodes and a foundation for future L. edodes breeding.

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