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Friday, July 19, 2019

Degradation and remobilization of endogenous retroviruses by recombination during the earliest stages of a germ-line invasion.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral sequences that result from colonization of the host germ line by exogenous retroviruses. The majority of ERVs represent defective retroviral copies. However, for most ERVs, endogenization occurred millions of years ago, obscuring the stages by which ERVs become defective and the changes in both virus and host important to the process. The koala retrovirus, KoRV, only recently began invading the germ line of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), permitting analysis of retroviral endogenization on a prospective basis. Here, we report that recombination with host genomic elements disrupts retroviruses during the earliest stages of germ-line invasion. One…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the urethral catheter isolate Myroides sp. A21.

Myroides sp. A21, isolated from a urethral catheterized patient without symptoms of a urinary tract infection in Germany, proved to be extensively drug resistant. Here, we report the 4.16-Mb complete genome sequence of strain A21, carrying unusual pathogenicity islands and explaining the features of multidrug resistance. Copyright © 2015 Burghartz et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome resequencing of the virulent and multidrug-resistant reference strain Clostridium difficile 630.

We resequenced the complete genome of the virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogen Clostridium difficile strain 630. A combination of single-molecule real-time and Illumina sequencing technology revealed the presence of an additional rRNA gene cluster, additional tRNAs, and the absence of a transposon in comparison to the published and reannotated genome sequence. Copyright © 2015 Riedel et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

What caused the outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit, Germany 2009 to 2012? Reconstructing transmission with epidemiological analysis and whole-genome sequencing.

We aimed to retrospectively reconstruct the timing of transmission events and pathways in order to understand why extensive preventive measures and investigations were not sufficient to prevent new cases.We extracted available information from patient charts to describe cases and to compare them to the normal population of the ward. We conducted a cohort study to identify risk factors for pathogen acquisition. We sequenced the available isolates to determine the phylogenetic relatedness of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates on the basis of their genome sequences.The investigation comprises 37 cases and the 10 cases with ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase)-producing K. pneumoniae bloodstream infection. Descriptive epidemiology…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Paenibacillus larvae-directed bacteriophage HB10c2 and its application in American Foulbrood-affected honey bee larvae.

Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious honey bee brood bacterial disease. We isolated and characterized P. larvae-directed bacteriophages and developed criteria for safe phage therapy. Whole-genome analysis of a highly lytic virus of the family Siphoviridae (HB10c2) provided a detailed safety profile and uncovered its lysogenic nature and a putative beta-lactamase-like protein. To rate its antagonistic activity against the pathogens targeted and to specify potentially harmful effects on the bee population and the environment, P. larvae genotypes ERIC I to IV, representatives of the bee gut microbiota, and a broad panel of members…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the novel temperate Clostridium difficile phage phiCDIF1296T.

Clostridium difficile contains many integrated and extrachromosomal genetic elements. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the C. difficile bacteriophage phiCDIF1296T using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology. To our knowledge, this represents the largest genome (131 kb) of a temperate C. difficile phage recognized so far. Copyright © 2015 Wittmann et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome architecture of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128, a probiotic strain with potential immunomodulatory activity.

Clinical and preclinical observations indicate that Lactobacillus plantarum has anti-inflammatory activity and may regulate the immune responses of its hosts when ingested. Recently, modification of teichoic acids (TAs) produced by L. plantarum was reported as a key to regulating the systemic immune response in mice. However, data linking TA-related genetic determinants and the immunomodulatory effect are limited. To provide genomic information for elucidating the underlying mechanism of immunomodulation by L. plantarum, we sequenced the genome of L. plantarum strain PS128.The PS128 genome contains 11 contigs (3,325,806 bp; 44.42% GC content) after hybrid assembly of sequences derived with Illumina MiSeq and PacBio…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the Clostridium difficile type strain DSM 1296T.

In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of the Clostridium difficile type strain DSM 1296(T). A combination of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing technology revealed the presence of one chromosome and two extrachromosomal elements, the bacteriophage phiCDIF1296T and a putative plasmid-like structure harboring genes of another bacteriophage. Copyright © 2015 Riedel et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic identification of nitrogen-fixing Klebsiella variicola, K. pneumoniae and K. quasipneumoniae.

It was difficult to differentiate Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. quasipneumoniae and K. variicola by biochemical and phenotypic tests. Genomics increase the resolution and credibility of taxonomy for closely-related species. Here, we obtained the complete genome sequence of the K. variicola type strain DSM 15968(T) (=F2R9(T) ). The genome of the type strain is a circular chromosome of 5,521,203?bp with 57.56% GC content. From 540 Klebsiella strains whose genomes had been publicly available as at 3 March 2015, we identified 21 strains belonging to K. variicola and 8 strains belonging to K. quasipneumoniae based on the genome average nucleotide identities (ANI). All…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of highly adherent Pseudomonas aeruginosa small-colony variant SCV20265.

The evolution of small-colony variants within Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations chronically infecting the cystic fibrosis lung is one example of the emergence of adapted subpopulations. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the autoaggregative and hyperpiliated P. aeruginosa small-colony variant SCV20265, which was isolated from a cystic ?brosis (CF) patient.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First genome sequences of Achromobacter phages reveal new members of the N4 family.

Multi-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen causing nosocomially acquired infections during the last years. Phages as natural opponents could be an alternative to fight such infections. Bacteriophages against this opportunistic pathogen were isolated in a recent study. This study shows a molecular analysis of two podoviruses and reveals first insights into the genomic structure of Achromobacter phages so far.Growth curve experiments and adsorption kinetics were performed for both phages. Adsorption and propagation in cells were visualized by electron microscopy. Both phage genomes were sequenced with the PacBio RS II system based on single molecule, real-time (SMRT)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis specific mptD gene is required for maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis necessary for full virulence in mouse infections.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Furthermore, infections of humans with MAP have been reported and a possible association with Crohn’s disease and diabetes type I is currently discussed. MAP owns large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that were exclusively found in this mycobacteria species. The relevance of these LSPs in the pathobiology of MAP is still unclear. The mptD gene (MAP3733c) of MAP belongs to a small group of functionally uncharacterized genes, which are not present in any other sequenced mycobacteria species. mptD is part of a predicted operon (mptABCDEF), encoding a putative…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Permanent draft genome sequences of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing Ensifer meliloti strains BO21CC and AK58.

Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) meliloti is an important symbiotic bacterial species that fixes nitrogen. Strains BO21CC and AK58 were previously investigated for their substrate utilization and their plant-growth promoting abilities showing interesting features. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of these strains. BO21CC and AK58 genomes are 6,985,065 and 6,974,333 bp long with 6,746 and 6,992 genes predicted, respectively.

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