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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Parallels between experimental and natural evolution of legume symbionts.

The emergence of symbiotic interactions has been studied using population genomics in nature and experimental evolution in the laboratory, but the parallels between these processes remain unknown. Here we compare the emergence of rhizobia after the horizontal transfer of a symbiotic plasmid in natural populations of Cupriavidus taiwanensis, over 10 MY ago, with the experimental evolution of symbiotic Ralstonia solanacearum for a few hundred generations. In spite of major differences in terms of time span, environment, genetic background, and phenotypic achievement, both processes resulted in rapid genetic diversification dominated by purifying selection. We observe no adaptation in the plasmid carrying…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome of an allotetraploid wild peanut Arachis monticola: a de novo assembly.

Arachis monticola (2n = 4x = 40) is the only allotetraploid wild peanut within the Arachis genus and section, with an AABB-type genome of ~2.7 Gb in size. The AA-type subgenome is derived from diploid wild peanut Arachis duranensis, and the BB-type subgenome is derived from diploid wild peanut Arachis ipaensis. A. monticola is regarded either as the direct progenitor of the cultivated peanut or as an introgressive derivative between the cultivated peanut and wild species. The large polyploidy genome structure and enormous nearly identical regions of the genome make the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. Here we report…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Footprints of parasitism in the genome of the parasitic flowering plant Cuscuta campestris.

A parasitic lifestyle, where plants procure some or all of their nutrients from other living plants, has evolved independently in many dicotyledonous plant families and is a major threat for agriculture globally. Nevertheless, no genome sequence of a parasitic plant has been reported to date. Here we describe the genome sequence of the parasitic field dodder, Cuscuta campestris. The genome contains signatures of a fairly recent whole-genome duplication and lacks genes for pathways superfluous to a parasitic lifestyle. Specifically, genes needed for high photosynthetic activity are lost, explaining the low photosynthesis rates displayed by the parasite. Moreover, several genes involved…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina, and Morchella septimelata.

Draft genomes of the species Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina and Morchella septimelata are presented. Both mating types (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) of Cercospora beticola are included. Two strains of Coleophoma cylindrospora that produce sulfated homotyrosine echinocandin variants, FR209602, FR220897 and FR220899 are presented. The sequencing of Aspergillus mulundensis, Coleophoma cylindrospora and Phialophora cf. hyalina has enabled mapping of the gene clusters encoding the chemical diversity from the echinocandin pathways, providing data that reveals the complexity of secondary metabolism in these different species. Overall…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Saliniramus fredricksonii gen. nov., sp. nov., a heterotrophic halophile isolated from Hot Lake, Washington, a member of a novel lineage (Salinarimonadaceae fam. nov.) within the order Rhizobiales, and reclassification of the genus Salinarimonas Liu et al. 2010 into Salinarimonadaceae.

There was an error in the proposed genus name in the published article, in that the genus ‘Salinivirga’ was effectively published while this article was in review. Therefore, the genus ‘Salinivirga’ should be replaced with ‘Saliniramus’. For the convenience of future readers, we have included the complete corrected article below, in which all occurrences of the incorrect genus name have been amended: A halophilic bacterial strain, HL-109T, was isolated from the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O, which was obtained from the photosynthetic mat of Hot Lake (Washington, USA). A polyphasic approach using phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data was used to classify the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genotype-Corrector: improved genotype calls for genetic mapping in F2 and RIL populations.

F2 and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations are very commonly used in plant genetic mapping studies. Although genome-wide genetic markers like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be readily identified by a wide array of methods, accurate genotype calling remains challenging, especially for heterozygous loci and missing data due to low sequencing coverage per individual. Therefore, we developed Genotype-Corrector, a program that corrects genotype calls and imputes missing data to improve the accuracy of genetic mapping. Genotype-Corrector can be applied in a wide variety of genetic mapping studies that are based on low coverage whole genome sequencing (WGS) or Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of the ancient tracheophyte Selaginella tamariscina reveals evolutionary features relevant to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Resurrection plants, which are the “gifts” of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying the genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27 761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is an almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive Selaginella moellendorffii. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses highlight the unique…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Chara genome: Secondary complexity and implications for plant terrestrialization.

Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii; comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene families, with three cases of particular…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Nine draft genome sequences of Claviceps purpurea s.lat., including C. arundinis, C. humidiphila, and C. cf. spartinae, pseudomolecules for the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum, draft genome of Davidsoniella eucalypti, Grosmannia galeiformis, Quambalaria eucalypti, and Teratosphaeria destructans.

This genome announcement includes draft genomes from Claviceps purpurea s.lat., including C. arundinis, C. humidiphila and C. cf. spartinae. The draft genomes of Davidsoniella eucalypti, Quambalaria eucalypti and Teratosphaeria destructans, all three important eucalyptus pathogens, are presented. The insect associate Grosmannia galeiformis is also described. The pine pathogen genome of Fusarium circinatum has been assembled into pseudomolecules, based on additional sequence data and by harnessing the known synteny within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. This new assembly of the F. circinatum genome provides 12 pseudomolecules that correspond to the haploid chromosome number of F. circinatum. These are comparable to other…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete sequence of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) mitochondrial genome and comparative analysis with the mitochondrial genomes of other plants.

Plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes are species specific due to the vast of foreign DNA migration and frequent recombination of repeated sequences. Sequencing of the mt genome of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is essential for elucidating its evolutionary characteristics. In the present study, single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was used to sequence the complete mt genome of kenaf. Results showed that the complete kenaf mt genome was 569,915?bp long and consisted of 62 genes, including 36 protein-coding, 3 rRNA and 23 tRNA genes. Twenty-five introns were found among nine of the 36 protein-coding genes, and five introns were trans-spliced. A comparative analysis…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of the early flowering plant Nymphaea colorata is highly repetitive with low recombination.

Mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants (angiosperms) are highly dynamic in genome structure. The mitogenome of the earliest angiosperm Amborella is remarkable in carrying rampant foreign DNAs, in contrast to Liriodendron, the other only known early angiosperm mitogenome that is described as ‘fossilized’. The distinctive features observed in the two early flowering plant mitogenomes add to the current confusions of what early flowering plants look like. Expanded sampling would provide more details in understanding the mitogenomic evolution of early angiosperms. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of water lily Nymphaea colorata from Nymphaeales, one of the three orders of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Orphan legumes growing in dry environments: Marama bean as a case study.

Plants have developed morphological, physiological, biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms to survive in drought-stricken environments with little or no water caused by below-average precipitation. In this mini-review, we highlight the characteristics that allows marama bean [Tylosema esculentum (Burchell) Schreiber], an example of an orphan legume native to arid regions of southwestern Southern Africa, to flourish under an inhospitable climate and dry soil conditions where no other agricultural crop competes in this agro-ecological zone. Orphan legumes are often better suited to withstand such harsh growth environments due to development of survival strategies using a combination of different traits and responses. Recent…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Groundnut entered post-genome sequencing era: Opportunities and challenges in translating genomic information from genome to field

Cultivated groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allopolyploid crop with a large complex genome and genetic barrier for exchanging genetic diversity from its wild relatives due to ploidy differences. Optimum genetic and genomic resources are key for accelerating the process for trait mapping and gene discovery and deploying diagnostic markers in genomics-assisted breeding. The better utilization of different aspects of peanut biology such as genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics, and interactomics can be of great help to groundnut genetic improvement program across the globe. The availability of high-quality reference genome is core to all the “omics” approaches, and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Assembly and comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sophora japonica ‘JinhuaiJ2’.

Sophora japonica L. (Faboideae, Leguminosae) is an important traditional Chinese herb with a long history of cultivation. Its flower buds and fruits contain abundant flavonoids, and therefore, the plants are cultivated for the industrial extraction of rutin. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of S. japonica ‘JinhuaiJ2’, the most widely planted variety in Guangxi region of China. The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 484,916 bp, with a GC content of 45.4%. Sophora japonica mtDNA harbors 32 known protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes with 17 cis-spliced and five trans-spliced introns…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics reveal a flagellar system, a type VI secretion system and plant growth-promoting gene clusters unique to the endophytic bacterium Kosakonia radicincitans.

The recent worldwide discovery of plant growth-promoting (PGP) Kosakonia radicincitans in a large variety of crop plants suggests that this species confers significant influence on plants, both in terms of yield increase and product quality improvement. We provide a comparative genome analysis which helps to unravel the genetic basis for K. radicincitans’ motility, competitiveness and plant growth-promoting capacities. We discovered that K. radicincitans carries multiple copies of complex gene clusters, among them two flagellar systems and three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). We speculate that host invasion may be facilitated by different flagella, and bacterial competitor suppression by effector proteins…

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