September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequencing of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001, a potential probiotic that enhances intestinal epithelial barrier function and defense against pathogens in pigs.

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with the most abundant, and one of the most diverse, microbial communities. The gut microbiota, which may contain more than 100 times the number of genes in the human genome, endows the host with beneficial functional features, including colonization resistance, nutrient metabolism, and immune tolerance (Bäckhed, 2005). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may result in serious adverse consequences for the host, such as neurological disorders, cancer, obesity, malnutrition, inflammatory dysregulation, and susceptibility to pathogens

September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of Weissella koreensis reveal its metabolic and fermentative features during kimchi fermentation

The genomic and metabolic features of Weissella koreensis, one of the major lactic acid bacteria in kimchi, were investigated through genomic, metabolic, and transcriptomic analyses for the genomes of strains KCTC 3621T, KACC 15510, and WiKim0080. W. koreensis strains were intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and harbored potential hemolysin genes that were actively transcribed although no hemolysin activity was detected. KEGG and reconstructed fermentative metabolic pathways displayed that W. koreensis strains commonly employ the heterolactic pathway to produce d-lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, d-sorbitol, thiamine, and folate from various carbohydrates including d-glucose, d-mannose, d-lactose, l-malate, d-xylose, l-arabinose, d-ribose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and gluconate, and strains KCTC 3621T and WiKim0080 additionally have metabolic pathways of d-galacturonate and d-glucoronate. Phenotypic analyses showed that all strains did not ferment d-galactose, probably due to the lack of d-galactose transporting system, and strains KCTC 3621T and WiKim0080 fermented d-fructose, indicating the presence of d-fructose transporting system. Fermentative features of W. koreensis were investigated through kimchi transcriptional analysis, suggesting that W. koreensis is mainly responsible for kimchi fermentation with the production of various fermentative metabolites during late fermentation period. This was the first study to investigate the genomic and metabolic features of W. koreensis, which may provide better understandings on kimchi fermentation.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Leuconostoc citreum EFEL2700, a host strain for transformation of pCB vectors.

Leuconostoc citreum is an important lactic acid bacterium used as a starter culture for producing kimchi, the traditional Korean fermented vegetables. An efficient host strain for plasmid transformation, L. citreum EFEL2700, was isolated from kimchi, and it has been frequently used for genetic engineering of L. citreum. In this study, we report the whole genome sequence of the strain and its genetic characteristics. Genome assembly yielded 5 contigs (1 chromosome and 4 plasmids), and the complete genome contained 1,923,830 base pairs (bp) with a G?+?C content of 39.0%. Average nucleotide identity analysis showed high homology (= 99%) to the reference strain L. citreum KM 20. The smallest plasmid (4.3 kbp) was used as an Escherichia coli shuttle vector (pCB) for heterologous gene expression, and L. citreum EFEL2700 showed the highest transformation efficiency, 6.7?×?104 CFU µg-1 DNA. Genetic analysis of the genome enabled the construction of primary metabolic pathway showing a typical hetero-type lactic acid fermentation. Notably, no core genes for primary metabolism were observed in plasmid 4 and it could be eliminated to create an efficient host for gene transformation. This report will facilitate the understanding and application of L. citreum EFEL2700 as a food-grade microbial cell factory.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

September 22, 2019  |  

Staying alive: growth and survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Members of the Bifidobacterium genus are widely used as probiotics in fermented milk products. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis CNCM I-4602 grows and survives poorly in reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM). Availing of genome and transcriptome information, this poor growth and survival phenotype in milk was substantially improved by the addition of certain compounds, such as yeast extract, uric acid, glutathione, cysteine, ferrous sulfate, and a combination of magnesium sulfate and manganese sulfate. Carbohydrate utilization of CNCM I-4602 was also investigated, allowing the identification of several carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, and highlighting this strain’s inability to utilize lactose, unlike the type strain of this subspecies, B. animalis subsp. animalis ATCC25527 and the B. animalis subsp. lactis subspecies. In addition, the ability of B. animalis subsp. animalis CNCM I-4602 to colonize a murine model was investigated, which showed that this strain persists in the murine gut for a period of at least 4 weeks. Associated in vivo transcriptome analysis revealed that, among other genes, a gene cluster encoding a predicted type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pilus was upregulated, indicating that this extracellular structure plays a role in the colonization/adaptation of the murine gastrointestinal tract by this strain.

September 22, 2019  |  

A novel probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii 456, resists acid and can persist in the human gut beyond the initial ingestion period.

Probiotics are considered to have multiple beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract, including immunomodulation, pathogen inhibition, and improved host nutrient metabolism. However, extensive characterization of these properties is needed to define suitable clinical applications for probiotic candidates. Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 (LBJ 456) was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-genotoxic effects in a mouse model. Here, we characterize its resistance to gastric and bile acids as well as its ability to inhibit gut pathogens and adhere to host mucosa. While bile resistance and in vitro host attachment properties of LBJ 456 were comparable to other tested probiotics, LBJ 456 maintained higher viability at lower pH conditions compared to other tested strains. LBJ 456 also altered pathogen adhesion to LS 174T monolayers and demonstrated contact-dependent and independent inhibition of pathogen growth. Genome analyses further revealed possible genetic elements involved in host attachment and pathogen inhibition. Importantly, we show that ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 over a one week yogurt course leads to persistent viable bacteria detectable even beyond the period of initial ingestion, unlike many other previously described probiotic species of lactic acid bacteria.

September 22, 2019  |  

Description of Schaedlerella arabinophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a D-arabinose utilizing bacterium isolated from feces of C57BL/6J mice and a close relative of Clostridium sp. ASF 502

The use of gnotobiotics has gained large interest in recent years due to technological advances that have revealed the importance of host-associated microbiomes for host physiology and health. One of the oldest and most important gnotobiotics mouse model, the Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF) has been used for several decades. ASF comprises eight different bacterial species, which have been characterized to different extent, but only few are available through public strain collections. Here, the isolation of a close relative to one of the less studied ASF strains, Clostridium sp. ASF 502, is reported. Isolate TLL-A1, which shares 99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Clostridium sp. ASF 502, was obtained from feces of C57BL/6J mice where is was detectable at a relative abundance of less than one percent. D-arabinose was used as sole carbon source in the anaerobic cultivation medium. Growth experiments with TLL-A1 on different carbon sources and analysis of its ~6.5 gigabase genome indicate that TLL-A1 harbors a large gene repertoire to utilize different carbohydrates for growth. Comparative genome analyses of TLL-A1 and Clostridium sp. ASF 502 reveal differences in genome content between the two strains, in particular with regards to carbohydrate activating enzymes. Based on physiology and genomic analysis it is proposed to name TLL-A1 to gen. nov. sp. nov Schaedlerella arabinophila TLL-A1 (DSMZ 106076T; KCTC 15657T). The closely related Clostridium sp. ASF 502 is proposed to be renamed to Schaedlerella arabinophila to reflect its taxonomic standing and to keep textquoterightASF 502textquoteright as strain designation.

September 21, 2019  |  

Multiple genome sequences of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria.

Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. Copyright © 2016 Geissler et al.

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