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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Isolation, development, and genomic analysis of Bacillus megaterium SR7 for growth and metabolite production under supercritical carbon dioxide

Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is an attractive substitute for conventional organic solvents due to its unique transport and thermodynamic properties, its renewability and labile nature, and its high solubility for compounds such as alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. However, biological systems that use scCO2 are mainly limited to in vitro processes due to its strong inhibition of cell viability and growth. To solve this problem, we used a bioprospecting approach to isolate a microbial strain with the natural ability to grow while exposed to scCO2. Enrichment culture and serial passaging of deep subsurface fluids from the McElmo Dome scCO2 reservoir in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome alterations associated with improved transformation efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the microorganisms of choice for the development of protein delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Although there are numerous tools to facilitate genome engineering of lactobacilli; transformation efficiency still limits the ability to engineer their genomes. While genetically manipulating Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (LR 6475), we noticed that after an initial transformation, several LR 6475 strains significantly improved their ability to take up plasmid DNA via electroporation. Our goal was to understand the molecular basis for how these strains acquired the ability to increase transformation efficiency.Strains generated after transformation of plasmids pJP067 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii TUA4408L and evaluation of the antiviral activities of its extracellular polysaccharides in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

In lactic acid bacteria, the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been associated with some favorable technological properties as well as health-promoting benefits. Research works have shown the potential of EPS produced by lactobacilli to differentially modulate immune responses. However, most studies were performed in immune cells and few works have concentrated in the immunomodulatory activities of EPS in non-immune cells such as intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effects of EPS have not been studied in detail. In this work, we have performed a genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization and probiotic potency of Bacillus sp. DU-106, a highly effective producer of L-lactic acid isolated from fermented yogurt.

Bacillus sp. DU-106, a newly isolated member of Bacillus cereus group, exhibits the predominant ability to produce L-lactic acid. The probiotic potency of test strain revealed its survivability at acidic pH, bile salts and viability in simulated gastric juice in vitro. The acute oral toxicity test indicated its no toxicity to laboratory mice in vivo. We further determined the complete genome of strain DU-106 to understand genetic basis as a potential probiotic. It has a circular chromosome and three plasmids for a total genome 5,758,208 bp in size with a G + C content of 35.10%. Genes associated with lactate…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Screening and whole-genome sequencing of two Streptomyces species from the rhizosphere soil of peony reveal their characteristics as plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria.

Two bacteria, Streptomyces albireticuli MDJK11 and S. alboflavus MDJK44, which are potential plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria against pathogenic fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peony in Shandong, China. Their biological characteristics and complete genome sequences were reported in this study. The total genome size of MDJK11 was only 8.14?Mb with 6,550 protein-coding genes and a high GC content of 72.8?mol%. The MDJK44 genome comprises a 9.62 Mb chromosome with 72.1?mol% GC content, 7,285 protein-coding genes, and two plasmids. Some gene sequences in these two genomes were analyzed to be heterologously obtained by horizontal transfer. Gene or gene cluster candidates…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

2,3-Butanediol production by the non-pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus brasilensis.

2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO) is of considerable importance in the chemical, plastic, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. The main bacterial species producing this compound are considered pathogenic, hindering large-scale productivity. The species Paenibacillus brasilensis is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and is phylogenetically similar to P. polymyxa, a species widely used for 2,3-BDO production. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that P. brasilensis strains produce 2,3-BDO. Total 2,3-BDO concentrations for 15 P. brasilensis strains varied from 5.5 to 7.6 g/l after 8 h incubation at 32 °C in modified YEPD medium containing 20 g/l glucose. Strain PB24 produced 8.2 g/l of 2,3-BDO within a 12-h growth…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB mediated inhibition of oral streptococci.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium with a diverse ecological habitat. We recently isolated a L. rhamnosus strain (LRB) from a healthy baby-tooth that had naturally fallen out. We determined the whole genome sequence of LRB and found that the isolate is closely genetically related to an intestinal isolate, L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). However, the LRB genome had lost about a 75-kb segment and undergone a genomic rearrangement. We assessed LRB’s capacity to survive in the gut environment, at least temporarily. We found that LRB, like the intestinal isolate ATCC 53103, showed resistance to low pH but sensitive to bile…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the antimonite- and arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Bosea sp. AS-1 and its potential application in arsenic removal.

Arsenic (As) and antinomy (Sb) usually coexist in natural environments where both of them pollute soils and water. Microorganisms that oxidize arsenite [As(III)] and tolerate Sb have great potential in As and Sb bioremediation, In this study, a Gram-negative bacterial strain, Bosea sp. AS-1, was isolated from a mine slag sample collected in Xikuangshan Sb mine in China. AS-1 could tolerate 120?mM of As(III) and 50?mM of antimonite [Sb(III)]. It could also oxidize 2?mM of As(III) or Sb(III) completely under heterotrophic and aerobic conditions. Interestingly, strain AS-1 preferred to oxidize As(III) with yeast extract as the carbon source, whereas Sb(III)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conversion of methionine to cysteine in Lactobacillus paracasei depends on the highly mobile cysK-ctl-cysE gene cluster.

Milk and dairy products are rich in nutrients and are therefore habitats for various microbiomes. However, the composition of nutrients can be quite diverse, in particular among the sulfur containing amino acids. In milk, methionine is present in a 25-fold higher abundance than cysteine. Interestingly, a fraction of strains of the species L. paracasei – a flavor-enhancing adjunct culture species – can grow in medium with methionine as the sole sulfur source. In this study, we focus on genomic and evolutionary aspects of sulfur dependence in L. paracasei strains. From 24 selected L. paracasei strains, 16 strains can grow in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Endogenous rRNA sequence variation can regulate stress response gene expression and phenotype.

Prevailing dogma holds that ribosomes are uniform in composition and function. Here, we show that nutrient limitation-induced stress in E. coli changes the relative expression of rDNA operons to alter the rRNA composition within the actively translating ribosome pool. The most upregulated operon encodes the unique 16S rRNA, rrsH, distinguished by conserved sequence variation within the small ribosomal subunit. rrsH-bearing ribosomes affect the expression of functionally coherent gene sets and alter the levels of the RpoS sigma factor, the master regulator of the general stress response. These impacts are associated with phenotypic changes in antibiotic sensitivity, biofilm formation, and cell motility…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genome analysis and evaluation of probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strain JDFM LP11.

In the current study, the probiotic potential of approximately 250 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from piglet fecal samples were investigated; among them Lactobacillus plantarum strain JDFM LP11, which possesses significant probiotic potential, with enhanced acid/bile tolerance, attachment to porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), and antimicrobial activity. The genetic characteristics of strain JDFM LP11 were explored by performing whole genome sequencing (WGS) using a PacBio system. The circular draft genome have a total length of 3,206,883 bp and a total of 3,021 coding sequences were identified. Phylogenetically, three genes, possibly related to survival and metabolic activity in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and characterization of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate KUB3006 carrying a cfr(B)-transposon on its chromosome and optrA-plasmid.

Linezolid (LZD) has become one of the most important antimicrobial agents for infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, including those caused by Enterococcus species. LZD-resistant (LR) genetic features include mutations in 23S rRNA/ribosomal proteins, a plasmid-borne 23S rRNA methyltransferase gene cfr, and ribosomal protection genes (optrA and poxtA). Recently, a cfr gene variant, cfr(B), was identified in a Tn6218-like transposon (Tn) in a Clostridioides difficile isolate. Here, we isolated an LR Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, KUB3006, from a urine specimen of a patient with urinary tract infection during hospitalization in 2017. Comparative and whole-genome analyses were performed to characterize the genetic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Update on Tetracycline Susceptibility of Pediococcus acidilactici Based on Strains Isolated from Swiss Cheese and Whey.

Bacterial strains used as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods may act as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. To avoid the introduction of such genes into the food chain, the presence of acquired AbR in bacterial strains added to food must be tested. Standard protocols and microbiological cut-off values have been defined to provide practitioners with a basis for evaluating whether their bacterial isolates harbor an acquired resistance to a given antibiotic. Here, we tested the AbR of 24 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici by using the standard protocol and microbiological cut-off values recommended by the European Food…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evaluation of bacterial contamination in goat milk powder using PacBio Single Molecule Real-Time Sequencing and Droplet Digital PCR.

Goat milk powder is a nutritious and easy-to-store product that is highly favored by consumers. However, the presence of contaminating bacteria and their metabolites may significantly affect the flavor, solubility, shelf life, and safety of the product. To comprehensively and accurately understand the sanitary conditions in the goat milk powder production process and potential threats from bacterial contamination, a combination of Pacific Biosciences single molecule real-time sequencing and droplet digital PCR was used to evaluate bacterial contamination in seven goat milk powder samples from three dairies. Ten phyla, 119 genera, and 249 bacterial species were identified. Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Lactococcus, and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of Streptococcus pluranimalium from a cattle with mastitis by whole genome sequencing and functional validation.

Streptococcus pluranimalium is a new member of the Streptococcus genus isolated from multiple different animal hosts. It has been identified as a pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in animals. Moreover, this bacterium has emerged as a new pathogen for human infective endocarditis and brain abscess. However, the patho-biological properties of S. pluranimalium remain virtually unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the complete genome sequence of S. pluranimalium strain TH11417 isolated from a cattle with mastitis, and to characterize its antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and carbon catabolism.The genome of S. pluranimalium TH11417, determined by single-molecule…

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