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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enhancing the adaptability of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to high pressure and low temperature by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress.

Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT. In this study, using the wild-type (WT) strain of a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with an enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of Lactobacillus amylolyticus L6 as potential probiotics based on genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes

The potential of newly isolated Lactobacillus amylolyticus L6 as probiotics was investigated based on the whole genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes. With Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM as positive control, several established methods of evaluating potential probiotics were performed on L. amylolyticus L6. The results indicated that L. amylolyticus L6 retained higher viability in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and it also had strong inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, the candidate probiotics exhibited similar adhesion level as that of L. acidophilus NCFM in vitro test. As for carbohydrate utilization profile, L. amylolyticus L6 had high ability of utilizing raffinose and stachyose which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide comparison reveals a probiotic strain Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of olive flounder (Paralichthys Olivaceus) harboring genes supporting probiotic action.

Our previous study has shown that dietary supplementation with Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 can enhance the growth of olive flounder and its resistance against streptococcal infection. The objective of the present study was to use comparative genomics tools to investigate genomic characteristics of strain WFLU12 and the presence of genes supporting its probiotic action using sequenced genomes of L. lactis strains. Dispensable and singleton genes of strain WFLU12 were found to be more enriched in genes associated with metabolism (e.g., energy production and conversion, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism) than pooled dispensable and singleton genes in other L. lactis strains, reflecting…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Flow cytometry analysis of Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598 populations exhibiting different phenotypes induced by changes in cultivation conditions.

Biobutanol production by clostridia via the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) pathway is a promising future technology in bioenergetics , but identifying key regulatory mechanisms for this pathway is essential in order to construct industrially relevant strains with high tolerance and productivity. We have applied flow cytometric analysis to C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598 and carried out comparative screening of physiological changes in terms of viability under different cultivation conditions to determine its dependence on particular stages of the life cycle and the concentration of butanol.Dual staining by propidium iodide (PI) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) provided separation of cells into four subpopulations with different…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and probiotic characterization of SJP-SNU strain of Pichia kudriavzevii.

The yeast strain SJP-SNU was investigated as a probiotic and was characterized with respect to growth temperature, bile salt resistance, hydrogen sulfide reducing activity, intestinal survival ability and chicken embryo pathogenicity. In addition, we determined the complete genomic and mitochondrial sequences of SJP-SNU and conducted comparative genomics analyses. SJP-SNU grew rapidly at 37 °C and formed colonies on MacConkey agar containing bile salt. SJP-SNU reduced hydrogen sulfide produced by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis and, after being fed to 4-week-old chickens, could be isolated from cecal feces. SJP-SNU did not cause mortality in 10-day-old chicken embryos. From 13 initial contigs, 11 were finally…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insect symbionts as valuable grist for the biotechnological mill: an alkaliphilic silkworm gut bacterium for efficient lactic acid production.

Insects constitute the most abundant and diverse animal class and act as hosts to an extraordinary variety of symbiotic microorganisms. These microbes living inside the insects play critical roles in host biology and are also valuable bioresources. Enterococcus mundtii EMB156, isolated from the larval gut (gut pH >10) of the model organism Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), efficiently produces lactic acid, an important metabolite for industrial production of bioplastic materials. E. mundtii EMB156 grows well under alkaline conditions and stably converts various carbon sources into lactic acid, offering advantages in downstream fermentative processes. High-yield lactic acid production can be achieved by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phylogenomic analysis of Lactobacillus curvatus reveals two lineages distinguished by genes for fermenting plant-derived carbohydrates.

Lactobacillus curvatus is a lactic acid bacterium encountered in many different types of fermented food (meat, seafood, vegetables, and cereals). Although this species plays an important role in the preservation of these foods, few attempts have been made to assess its genomic diversity. This study uses comparative analyses of 13 published genomes (complete or draft) to better understand the evolutionary processes acting on the genome of this species. Phylogenomic analysis, based on a coalescent model of evolution, revealed that the 6,742 sites of single nucleotide polymorphism within the L. curvatus core genome delineate two major groups, with lineage 1 represented…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional regulation of cysteine and methionine metabolism in Lactobacillus paracasei FAM18149.

Lactobacillus paracasei is common in the non-starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community of raw milk cheeses. This species can significantly contribute to flavor formation through amino acid metabolism. In this study, the DNA and RNA of L. paracasei FAM18149 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies to reconstruct the metabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Twenty-three genes were found to be involved in cysteine biosynthesis, the conversion of cysteine to methionine and vice versa, the S-adenosylmethionine recycling pathway, and the transport of sulfur-containing amino acids. Additionally, six methionine-specific T-boxes and one cysteine-specific T-box were found. Five of these…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Investigating the central metabolism of Clostridium thermosuccinogenes.

Clostridium thermosuccinogenes is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium able to convert various carbohydrates to succinate and acetate as main fermentation products. Genomes of the four publicly available strains have been sequenced, and the genome of the type strain has been closed. The annotated genomes were used to reconstruct the central metabolism, and enzyme assays were used to validate annotations and to determine cofactor specificity. The genes were identified for the pathways to all fermentation products, as well as for the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway. Notably, a candidate transaldolase was lacking, and transcriptomics during growth on glucose versus that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequencing of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus plantarum K25 provides genetic evidence for the probiotic functionality and cold endurance capacity of the strain.

Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) K25 is a probiotic strain isolated from Tibetan kefir. Previous studies showed that this exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain was antimicrobial active and cold tolerant. These functional traits were evidenced by complete genome sequencing of strain K25 with a circular 3,175,846-bp chromosome and six circular plasmids, encoding 3365 CDSs, 16 rRNA genes and 70 tRNA genes. Genomic analysis of L. plantarum K25 illustrates that this strain contains the previous reported mechanisms of probiotic functionality and cold tolerance, involving plantaricins, lysozyme, bile salt hydrolase, chaperone proteins, osmoprotectant, oxidoreductase, EPSs and terpenes. Interestingly, strain K25 harbors more genes that function…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933, a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability

Enterococci are commensal bacteria in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract which play an important role in the production of various fermented foods. Thus, certain enterococcal strains are commonly used as probiotics to confer health benefits to human and animals. Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933 is a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability, which was isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. To better understand the genetic basis of the probiotic properties of this strain, the whole-genome sequence was performed using the PacBio RSII platform.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Linking genotype and phenotype in an economically viable propionic acid biosynthesis process

Propionic acid (PA) is used as a food preservative and increasingly, as a precursor for the synthesis of monomers. PA is produced mainly through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene, also known as the `oxo-process’; however, Propionibacterium species are promising biological PA producers natively producing PA as their main fermentation product. However, for fermentation to be competitive, a PA yield of at least 0.6 g/g is required.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Large plasmidome of dairy Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03P encodes technological functions and appears highly unstable.

Important industrial traits have been linked to plasmids in Lactococcus lactis.The dairy isolate L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03P was sequenced revealing the biggest plasmidome of all completely sequenced and published L. lactis strains up till now. The 12 plasmids that were identified are: pLd1 (8277 bp), pLd2 (15,218 bp), pLd3 (4242 bp), pLd4 (12,005 bp), pLd5 (7521 bp), pLd6 (3363 bp), pLd7 (30,274 bp), pLd8 (47,015 bp), pLd9 (15,313 bp), pLd10 (39,563 bp), pLd11 (9833 bp) and pLd12 (3321 bp). Structural analysis of the repB promoters and the RepB proteins showed that eleven of the plasmids replicate via the theta-type mechanism, while only plasmid pLd3 replicates via a rolling-circle replication…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel bacteriocin BMP11 and its antibacterial mechanism on cell envelope of Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii

Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii are notorious pathogens involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks after ingested contaminated food. Bacteriocins are natural food preservatives, some of which have antimicrobial activity comparable with antibiotics. In this study, a plasmid encoded novel bacteriocin BMP11 produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 was innovatively identified by combining complete genome and LC-MS/MS. The BMP11 was found to have rich a-helix conformation after prediction. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of BMP11 was verified after its heterologous expression in E. coli with 1280 and 640 AU/mL against L. monocytogenes and C. sakazakii, respectively. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and HPLC, BMP11…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Cd(II)-resistant Arthrobacter sp. PGP41, a plant growth-promoting bacterium with potential in microbe-assisted phytoremediation.

Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has great potential for practical applications. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with heavy metal (HM) resistance are important for the implementation of PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of HM-contaminated environments. Arthrobacter sp. PGP41 is a Cd(II)-resistant bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere soils of a Cd(II) hyperaccumulator plant, Solanum nigrum. Strain PGP41 can significantly improve plant seedling and root growth under Cd(II) stress conditions. This bacterium exhibited the ability to produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as well as the ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate, and it possessed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of…

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