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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effect of dietary interventions on the intestinal microbiota of Mongolian hosts

The gut microbiota of Mongolian hosts has distinctive characteristics due to their meat- and dairy-oriented daily diets and unique genotype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of switching from the typical high protein and fat Mongolian diets to carbohydrate-rich meals composed principally of wheat, rice and naked oats on the host gut microbiota within 3 weeks. Our study took the advantage of the long sequence reads produced by the PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing technology to enable the profiling of subjects’ gut microbiota communities along the diet intervention to the species precision. We found that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Diversified microbiota of meconium is affected by maternal diabetes status.

This study was aimed to assess the diversity of the meconium microbiome and determine if the bacterial community is affected by maternal diabetes status.The first intestinal discharge (meconium) was collected from 23 newborns stratified by maternal diabetes status: 4 mothers had pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) including one mother with dizygotic twins, 5 developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 13 had no diabetes. The meconium microbiome was profiled using multi-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing followed by taxonomic assignment and diversity analysis.All meconium samples were not sterile and contained diversified microbiota. Compared with adult feces, the meconium showed a lower species…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacterial microbiota composition of fermented fruit and vegetable juices (jiaosu) analyzed by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing

Commercially manufactured ‘jiaosu’ (fermented fruit and vegetable juices) have gained popularity in Asia recently. Like other fermented products, they have a high microbial diversity and richness. However, no published study has yet described their microbiota composition. Thus, this work aimed to obtain the full-length 16S rRNA profiles of jiaosu using the PacBio single-molecule, real-time sequencing technology. We described the bacterial microbiota of three jiaosu products purchased from Taiwan and Japan. Bacterial sequences from all three samples distributed across seven different phyla, mainly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Forty-three genera were identified (e.g. Ochrobactrum, Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium, and Acinetobacter). Fifty- five species…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses

In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12, a potential host for biotechnological applications.

In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3.64 Mb chromosome and two plasmids of 59 and 56 kb. It has a total of 3.676 genes with an average genomic GC content of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into the non-histamine production and proteolytic and lipolytic activities of Tetragenococcus halophilus KUD23.

Tetragenococcus halophilus KUD23, a non-histamine producer, was isolated from a traditional Korean high-salt fermented soybean paste, doenjang. The strain was safe in terms of antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity and biofilm formation. It could grow on De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe agar containing 21% (w/v) NaCl, exhibited acid production at 15% NaCl, and had strain-specific proteolytic and lipolytic activities under salt stress. Complete genome analysis of T. halophilus KUD23 and comparative genomic analysis shed light on the genetic background behind these phenotypic characteristics, including non-production of histamine and proteolytic and lipolytic activities.© FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 11443 and the mutant strain SCT-10-10-60 with enhanced L-lactic acid production capacity.

Mechanisms for high L-lactic acid production remain unclear in many bacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCT-10-10-60 was previously obtained from L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443 via mutagenesis and showed improved L-lactic acid production. In this study, the genomes of strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443 were sequenced. Both genomes are a circular chromosome, 2.99 Mb in length with a GC content of approximately 46.8%. Eight split genes were identified in strain SCT-10-10-60, including two LytR family transcriptional regulators, two Rex redox-sensing transcriptional repressors, and four ABC transporters. In total, 60 significantly up-regulated genes (log2fold-change?=?2) and 39 significantly down-regulated genes (log2fold-change?=?-?2) were identified by a transcriptome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the SN35N strain-specific exopolysaccharide encoded in the whole circular genome of a plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum.

Lactobacillus plantarum SN35N, which has been previously isolated from pear, secretes exopolysaccharide (EPS). The aim of the present study is to characterize the EPS chemically and to find the EPS-biosynthesizing gene cluster. The present study demonstrates that the strain produces an acidic EPS carrying phosphate residue, which is composed of glucose, galactose, and mannose at a molecular ratio of 15.0?:?5.7?:?1.0. We also show that acidic EPS strongly inhibits the catalytic activity of hyaluronidase (EC 3.2.1.35), promoting an inflammatory reaction. In the present study, we also determined the complete genome sequence of the SN35N strain, demonstrating that the genome is a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus SLC13, isolated from mustard pickles, a potential probiotic strain with antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

Lactobacillus pentosus SLC13 is a high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the ability to grow in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. SLC13 was isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. To better understand the molecular base for its antimicrobial activity and high EPS production, entire genome of SLC13 was determined by PacBio SMRT sequencing.L. pentosus SLC13 contains a genome with a 3,520,510-bp chromosome and a 62,498-bp plasmid. GC content of the complete genome was 46.5% and that of plasmid pSLC13 was 41.3%. Sequences were annotated at the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation server, and the results showed that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of completely sequenced Lactobacillus helveticus genomes provides insights into strain-specific genes and resolves metagenomics data down to the strain level.

Although complete genome sequences hold particular value for an accurate description of core genomes, the identification of strain-specific genes, and as the optimal basis for functional genomics studies, they are still largely underrepresented in public repositories. Based on an assessment of the genome assembly complexity for all lactobacilli, we used Pacific Biosciences’ long read technology to sequence and de novo assemble the genomes of three Lactobacillus helveticus starter strains, raising the number of completely sequenced strains to 12. The first comparative genomics study for L. helveticus-to our knowledge-identified a core genome of 988 genes and sets of unique, strain-specific genes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of ß-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain’s growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis-guided metabolic engineering of Propionibacterium acidipropionici for improved propionic acid production.

Acid stress induced by the accumulation of organic acids during the fermentation of propionibacteria is a severe limitation in the microbial production of propionic acid (PA). To enhance the acid resistance of strains, the tolerance mechanisms of cells must first be understood. In this study, comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were conducted on wild-type and acid-tolerant Propionibacterium acidipropionici to reveal the microbial response of cells to acid stress during fermentation. Combined with the results of previous proteomic and metabolomic studies, several potential acid-resistance mechanisms of P. acidipropionici were analyzed. Energy metabolism and transporter activity of cells were regulated to maintain…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metabolic versatility of a novel N2-fixing Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine oxygen minimum zone.

The N2-fixing (diazotrophic) community in marine ecosystems is dominated by non-cyanobacterial microorganisms. Yet, very little is known about their identity, function and ecological relevance due to a lack of cultured representatives. Here we report a novel heterotrophic diazotroph isolated from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru. The new species belongs to the genus Sagittula (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria) and its capability to fix N2was confirmed in laboratory experiments. Genome sequencing revealed that it is a strict heterotroph with a high versatility in substrate utilization and energy acquisition mechanisms. Pathways for sulfide oxidation and nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide are encoded in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and genomic characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1 (11869BP).

Our body has natural defense systems to protect against potentially harmful microbes, including the physical and chemical barriers of the intestinal epithelium (Corfield et al., 2000). The physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium protects the host against pathogenic microbes (Anderson et al., 1993), and the intestinal mucosa coated with mucus excretes pathogens from the intestinal tract (Corfield et al., 2000).

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Probiotic and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 and Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 isolated from infant feces.

A total of 22 Lactobacillus strains, which were isolated from infant feces were evaluated for their probiotic potential along with resistance to low pH and bile salts. Eight isolates (L. reuteri 3M02 and 3M03, L. gasseri 4M13, 4R22, 5R01, 5R02, and 5R13, and L. rhamnosus 4B15) with high tolerance to acid and bile salts, and ability to adhere to the intestine were screened from 22 strains. Further, functional properties of 8 Lactobacillus strains, such as anti-oxidation, inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-inflammation were evaluated. The properties were strain-specific. Particularly, two strains of L. rhamnosus, 4B15 (4B15) and L. gasseri…

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