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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant for improving bacterial communities in the milks of cow teats with subclinical mastitis.

Teat disinfection pre- and post-milking is important for the overall health and hygiene of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel probiotic lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant based on changes in somatic cell count (SCC) and profiling of the bacterial community. A total of 69 raw milk samples were obtained from eleven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows over 12 days of teat dipping in China. Single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was employed to profile changes in the bacterial community during the cleaning protocol and to compare the efficacy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II’s sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Profiling of oral microbiota in early childhood caries using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing

Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing. Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3-5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities. Results: 876 species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Koumiss consumption alleviates symptoms of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: A possible link To modulation of gut microbiota

Intestinal dysbiosisis closely related to a variety of medical conditions, especially gastrointestinal diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of koumiss on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in an out-patient clinical trial (n = 10; all female subjects aged 41-55; body mass index ranging from 19.5 to 25.8). Each patient consumed three servings of koumiss per day (i.e. 250 ml daily before each of 3 meals) for a 60-day period. The improvement of patients’ symptoms was monitored by comparing the total scores of symptoms before and after the treatment. Meanwhile, the changes in the patients’ fecal microbiota composition and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reduction in fecal microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acid producers in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected individuals as revealed by PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may cause potentially lethal infections. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is associated with human health. Yet, whether patients with MRSA infections carry specific signatures in their fecal microbiota composition has not been determined. Thus, this study aimed to compare the fecal microbiota profile of MRSA-positive patients (n=15) with individuals without MRSA infection (n=15) by using the PacBio single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing system and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mann-Whitney tests and unweighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the profile of fecal microbiota was apparently different between the two populations.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Using PacBio long-read high-throughput microbial gene amplicon sequencing to evaluate infant formula safety.

Infant formula (IF) requires a strict microbiological standard because of the high vulnerability of infants to foodborne diseases. The current study used the PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform to generate full-length 16S rRNA-based bacterial microbiota profiles of thirty Chinese domestic and imported IF samples. A total of 600 species were identified, dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus piscium. Distinctive bacterial profiles were observed between the two sample groups, as confirmed with both principal coordinate analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. Moreover, the product whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), representing the degree of preheating, negatively correlated with…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Biogas production from hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTLWW): Focusing on the microbial communities as revealed by high-throughput sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA genes.

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging and promising technology for the conversion of wet biomass into bio-crude, however, little attention has been paid to the utilization of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTLWW) with high concentration of organics. The present study investigated biogas production from wastewater obtained from HTL of straw for bio-crude production, with focuses on the analysis of the microbial communities and characterization of the organics. Batch experiments showed the methane yield of HTLWW (R-HTLWW) was 184 mL/g COD, while HTLWW after petroleum ether extraction (PE-HTLWW), to extract additional bio-crude, had higher methane yield (235 mL/g COD) due to the extraction of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gut microbiota, nitric oxide, and microglia as prerequisites for neurodegenerative disorders.

Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation. NO…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of microbial profile of Koji using Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing technology.

Koji is a kind of Japanese traditional fermented starter that has been used for centuries. Many fermented foods are made from koji, such as sake, miso, and soy sauce. This study used the single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) to investigate the bacterial and fungal microbiota of 3 Japanese koji samples. After SMRT analysis, a total of 39121 high-quality sequences were generated, including 14354 bacterial and 24767 fungal sequence reads. The high-quality gene sequences were assigned to 5 bacterial and 2 fungal plyla, dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively. At the genus level, Ochrobactrum and Wickerhamomyces were the most abundant…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The effects of probiotics administration on the milk production, milk components and fecal bacteria microbiota of dairy cows

Probiotics administration can improve host health. This study aims to determine the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8) administration on milk production, milk functional components, milk composition, and fecal microbiota of dairy cows. Variations in the fecal bacteria microbiota between treatments were assessed based on 16S rRNA profiles determined by PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing technology. The probiotics supplementation significantly increased the milk production and the contents of milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactoferrin (LTF), lysozyme (LYS) and lactoperoxidase (LP), while the somatic cell counts (SCC) significantly decreased (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Profiling of metabolome and bacterial community dynamics in ensiled Medicago sativa inoculated without or with Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus buchneri.

Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the PacBio single molecule with real-time sequencing technology (SMRT), we analyzed the detailed metabolomic profiles and microbial community dynamics involved in ensiled Medicago sativa (alfalfa) inoculated without or with the homofermenter Lactobacillus plantarum or heterofermenter Lactobacillus buchneri. Our results revealed that 280 substances and 102 different metabolites were present in ensiled alfalfa. Inoculation of L. buchneri led to remarkable up-accumulation in concentrations of 4-aminobutyric acid, some free amino acids, and polyols in ensiled alfalfa, whereas considerable down-accumulation in cadaverine and succinic acid were observed in L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Completely different microbial flora and their…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter in Buryatia, Russia.

Traditional sour cream and butter are widely popular fermented dairy products in Russia for their flavor and nutrition, and contain rich microbial biodiversity, particularly in terms of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, few studies have described the microbial communities and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter. The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of eight samples collected from herdsmen in Buryatia, Russia. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 294 species and/or subspecies in 169 bacterial genera, belonging to 14 phyla. The dominant phylum was Firmicutes (81.47%)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effect of Chinese rice wine sludge on the production of Chinese steamed buns

Chinese rice wine sludge (CRWS), analogous to beer yeast sludge, is the filter cake remaining after squeezing the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine. CRWS contains high levels of protein (44.74%), nonstructural carbohydrates (37.33%), crude fiber (13.5%), and essential amino acids, which could enhance the trophic value of Chinese steamed buns. In our research, the microbiota of CRWS (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus sp.) was analyzed at the species level by single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology. Interestingly, the microbiota of CRWS was similar to that of the starter dough typically used to prepare Chinese steamed buns. Incorporation of CRWS significantly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

100K Pathogen Genome Project.

The 100K Pathogen Genome Project is producing draft and closed genome sequences from diverse pathogens. This project expanded globally to include a snapshot of global bacterial genome diversity. The genomes form a sequence database that has a variety of uses from systematics to public health. Copyright © 2017 Weimer.

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