September 22, 2019  |  

A novel lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant for improving bacterial communities in the milks of cow teats with subclinical mastitis.

Teat disinfection pre- and post-milking is important for the overall health and hygiene of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel probiotic lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant based on changes in somatic cell count (SCC) and profiling of the bacterial community. A total of 69 raw milk samples were obtained from eleven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows over 12 days of teat dipping in China. Single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was employed to profile changes in the bacterial community during the cleaning protocol and to compare the efficacy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and commercial teat disinfectants. The SCC gradually decreased following the cleaning protocol and the SCC of the LAB group was slightly lower than that of the commercial disinfectant (CD) group. Our SMRT sequencing results indicate that raw milk from both the LAB and CD groups contained diverse microbial populations that changed over the course of the cleaning protocol. The relative abundances of some species were significantly changed during the cleaning process, which may explain the observed bacterial community differences. Collectively, these results suggest that the LAB disinfectant could reduce mastitis-associated bacteria and improve the microbial environment of the cow teat. It could be used as an alternative to chemical pre- and post-milking teat disinfectants to maintain healthy teats and udders. In addition, the Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing with the full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene was shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring changes in the bacterial population during the cleaning protocol.


September 22, 2019  |  

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II’s sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing, complex population analysis, RNA sequencing, and epigenetics characterization. With PacBio RS II, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of many species, from viruses to humans. Herein, we summarize and review some of our key genome sequencing projects, including full-length viral sequencing, complete bacterial genome and almost-complete plant genome assemblies, and long amplicon sequencing of a disease-associated gene region. We believe that PacBio RS II is not only an effective tool for use in the basic biological sciences but also in the medical/clinical setting.


September 22, 2019  |  

Profiling of oral microbiota in early childhood caries using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing

Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing. Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3-5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities. Results: 876 species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38 species, including Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., showed higher abundance in the caries group compared to the caries-free group (p<0.05). The core microbiota at the genus and species levels was more stable in the caries-free micro-ecological niche. At follow-up, oral examinations 6 months after sample collection, development of new dental caries was observed in 5 children (the transitional group) among the 21 caries free children. Compared with the caries-free children, in the transitional and caries groups, 6 species, which were more abundant in the caries-free group, exhibited a relatively low abundance in both the caries group and the transitional group (p<0.05). We conclude that Abiotrophia spp., Neisseria spp. and Veillonella spp., are essential for maintaining a healthy oral microbial ecosystem. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Dialister spp. and Filifactor spp. may be related to the pathogenesis and progression of dental caries.


September 22, 2019  |  

Koumiss consumption alleviates symptoms of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: A possible link To modulation of gut microbiota

Intestinal dysbiosisis closely related to a variety of medical conditions, especially gastrointestinal diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of koumiss on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in an out-patient clinical trial (n = 10; all female subjects aged 41-55; body mass index ranging from 19.5 to 25.8). Each patient consumed three servings of koumiss per day (i.e. 250 ml daily before each of 3 meals) for a 60-day period. The improvement of patients’ symptoms was monitored by comparing the total scores of symptoms before and after the treatment. Meanwhile, the changes in the patients’ fecal microbiota composition and specific blood parameters were determined. After the 60-day koumiss administration, significant symptom improvements were observed, as evidenced by the reduction of the total symptoms score, and changes in blood platelet and cholesterol levels. The changes in patients’ fecal microbiota composition were found. The patients’ fecal microbiota fell into two distinct enterotypes, Bacteroides dorei/ Bacteroides uniformis (BB-enterotype) and Prevotella copri (P-enterotype). Significant less Bacteroides uniformis was found in the BB-enterotype patient group, while significant more butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Eubacterium rectale and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) were found in the P-enterotype patient group, following koumiss administration. After stopping koumiss consumption, the relative abundance of some biomarker taxa returned to the original level, suggesting that the gut microbiota modulatory effect was not permanent and that continuous koumiss administration was required to maintain the therapeutic effect. In conclusion, koumiss consumption could alleviate the symptoms of CAG patients. Our results may help understand the mechanism of koumiss in alleviating CAG disease symptoms, facilitating the development of such products with desired therapeutic functions.


September 22, 2019  |  

Reduction in fecal microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acid producers in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected individuals as revealed by PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may cause potentially lethal infections. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is associated with human health. Yet, whether patients with MRSA infections carry specific signatures in their fecal microbiota composition has not been determined. Thus, this study aimed to compare the fecal microbiota profile of MRSA-positive patients (n=15) with individuals without MRSA infection (n=15) by using the PacBio single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing system and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mann-Whitney tests and unweighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the profile of fecal microbiota was apparently different between the two populations. Both the community richness and diversity were reduced in the MRSA-positive group (p<0.050). The genera Acinetobacter and Enterococcus were highly enriched in the MRSA-positive group, whereas less short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Butyricimonas, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Megamonas and Phascolarctobacterium, were detected in the MRSA-positive group. At species level, the species Acinetobacter baumannii and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were prevalent in the MRSA-positive group, whereas opposite trends were observed in 17 other species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Lactobacillus rogosae, Megamonas rupellensis and Phascolarctobacterium faecium. Positive correlations were observed between Acinetobacter baumannii and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (R=0.554, p=0.001), as well as hypersensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) (R=0.406, p=0.026). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was negatively associated with ESR (R=-0.545, p=0.002), hsCRP (R=-0.401, p=0.028) and total bile acids (TBA) (R=-0.364, p=0.048). In conclusion, the fecal microbiota structure was different between MRSA-positive and -negative patients. The increase in potential pathogens with the reduction of beneficial populations, such as SCFA-producing bacteria, in MRSA-positive patients may affect prognosis.


September 22, 2019  |  

Using PacBio long-read high-throughput microbial gene amplicon sequencing to evaluate infant formula safety.

Infant formula (IF) requires a strict microbiological standard because of the high vulnerability of infants to foodborne diseases. The current study used the PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform to generate full-length 16S rRNA-based bacterial microbiota profiles of thirty Chinese domestic and imported IF samples. A total of 600 species were identified, dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus piscium. Distinctive bacterial profiles were observed between the two sample groups, as confirmed with both principal coordinate analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. Moreover, the product whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), representing the degree of preheating, negatively correlated with the relative abundances of the Bacillus genus. Our study has demonstrated the application of the PacBio SMRT sequencing platform in assessing the bacterial contamination of IF products, which is of interest to the dairy industry for effective monitoring of microbial quality and safety during production.


September 22, 2019  |  

Biogas production from hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTLWW): Focusing on the microbial communities as revealed by high-throughput sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA genes.

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging and promising technology for the conversion of wet biomass into bio-crude, however, little attention has been paid to the utilization of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTLWW) with high concentration of organics. The present study investigated biogas production from wastewater obtained from HTL of straw for bio-crude production, with focuses on the analysis of the microbial communities and characterization of the organics. Batch experiments showed the methane yield of HTLWW (R-HTLWW) was 184 mL/g COD, while HTLWW after petroleum ether extraction (PE-HTLWW), to extract additional bio-crude, had higher methane yield (235 mL/g COD) due to the extraction of recalcitrant organic compounds. Sequential batch experiments further demonstrated the higher methane yield of PE-HTLWW. LC-TOF-MS, HPLC and gel filtration chromatography showed organics with molecular weight (MW) < 1000 were well degraded. Results from the high-throughput sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA genes analysis showed similar microbial community compositions were obtained for the reactors fed with either R-HTLWW or PE-HTLWW. The degradation of fatty acids were related with Mesotoga infera, Syntrophomonas wolfei et al. by species level identification. However, the species related to the degradation of other compounds (e.g. phenols) were not found, which could be due to the presence of uncharacterized microorganisms. It was also found previously proposed criteria (97% and 98.65% similarity) for species identification of 16S rRNA genes were not suitable for a fraction of 16S rRNA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Gut microbiota, nitric oxide, and microglia as prerequisites for neurodegenerative disorders.

Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation. NO also instigates a down-regulated secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is essential for neuronal survival, development and differentiation, synaptogenesis, and learning and memory. The gut-brain axis denotes communication between the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the GI tract and the central nervous system (CNS) of the brain, and the modes of communication include the vagus nerve, passive diffusion and carrier by oxyhemoglobin. Amyloid precursor protein that forms amyloid beta plaques in AD is normally expressed in the ENS by gut bacteria, but when amyloid beta accumulates, it compromises CNS functions. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are among the many bacterial strains that express and secrete amyloid proteins and contribute to AD pathogenesis. Gut microbiota is essential for regulating microglia maturation and activation, and activated microglia secrete significant amounts of iNOS. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modifications to rectify aberrant NO signaling in AD include NOS inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonists, potassium channel modulators, probiotics, diet, and exercise.


September 22, 2019  |  

Identification of microbial profile of Koji using Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing technology.

Koji is a kind of Japanese traditional fermented starter that has been used for centuries. Many fermented foods are made from koji, such as sake, miso, and soy sauce. This study used the single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) to investigate the bacterial and fungal microbiota of 3 Japanese koji samples. After SMRT analysis, a total of 39121 high-quality sequences were generated, including 14354 bacterial and 24767 fungal sequence reads. The high-quality gene sequences were assigned to 5 bacterial and 2 fungal plyla, dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively. At the genus level, Ochrobactrum and Wickerhamomyces were the most abundant bacterial and fungal genera, respectively. The predominant bacterial and fungal species were Ochrobactrum lupini and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, respectively. Our study profiled the microbiota composition of 3 Japanese koji samples to the species level precision. The results may be useful for further development of traditional fermented products, especially optimization of koji preparation. Meanwhile, this study has demonstrated that SMRT is a robust tool for analyzing the microbial composition in food samples.© 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.


September 22, 2019  |  

The effects of probiotics administration on the milk production, milk components and fecal bacteria microbiota of dairy cows

Probiotics administration can improve host health. This study aims to determine the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8) administration on milk production, milk functional components, milk composition, and fecal microbiota of dairy cows. Variations in the fecal bacteria microbiota between treatments were assessed based on 16S rRNA profiles determined by PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing technology. The probiotics supplementation significantly increased the milk production and the contents of milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactoferrin (LTF), lysozyme (LYS) and lactoperoxidase (LP), while the somatic cell counts (SCC) significantly decreased (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the milk fat, protein and lactose contents (P > 0.05). Although the probiotics supplementation did not change the fecal bacteria richness and diversity, significantly more rumen fermentative bacteria (Bacteroides, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, Coprococcus and Dorea) and beneficial bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) were found in the probiotics treatment group. Meanwhile, some opportunistic pathogens e.g. Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii and Alkaliphilus oremlandii, were suppressed. Additionally, we found some correlations between the milk production, milk components and fecal bacteria. To sum up, our study demonstrated the beneficial effects of probiotics application in improving the quality and quantity of cow milk production.


September 22, 2019  |  

Profiling of metabolome and bacterial community dynamics in ensiled Medicago sativa inoculated without or with Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus buchneri.

Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the PacBio single molecule with real-time sequencing technology (SMRT), we analyzed the detailed metabolomic profiles and microbial community dynamics involved in ensiled Medicago sativa (alfalfa) inoculated without or with the homofermenter Lactobacillus plantarum or heterofermenter Lactobacillus buchneri. Our results revealed that 280 substances and 102 different metabolites were present in ensiled alfalfa. Inoculation of L. buchneri led to remarkable up-accumulation in concentrations of 4-aminobutyric acid, some free amino acids, and polyols in ensiled alfalfa, whereas considerable down-accumulation in cadaverine and succinic acid were observed in L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Completely different microbial flora and their successions during ensiling were observed in the control and two types of inoculant-treated silages. Inoculation of the L. plantarum or L. buchneri alters the microbial composition dynamics of the ensiled forage in very different manners. Our study demonstrates that metabolomic profiling analysis provides a deep insight in metabolites in silage. Moreover, the PacBio SMRT method revealed the microbial composition and its succession during the ensiling process at the species level. This provides information regarding the microbial processes underlying silage formation and may contribute to target-based regulation methods to achieve high-quality silage production.


September 22, 2019  |  

Bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter in Buryatia, Russia.

Traditional sour cream and butter are widely popular fermented dairy products in Russia for their flavor and nutrition, and contain rich microbial biodiversity, particularly in terms of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, few studies have described the microbial communities and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter. The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of eight samples collected from herdsmen in Buryatia, Russia. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 294 species and/or subspecies in 169 bacterial genera, belonging to 14 phyla. The dominant phylum was Firmicutes (81.47%) and the dominant genus was Lactococcus (59.28%). There were differences between the bacterial compositions of the sour cream and butter samples. The relative abundances of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Acetobacter cibinongensis were significantly higher in sour cream than in butter, and the abundance of Streptococcusthermophilus was significantly lower in sour cream than in butter. Using a pure culture method, 48 strains were isolated and identified to represent seven genera and 15 species and/or subspecies. Among these isolates, Lactococccus lactis subsp. lactis (22.50%) was the dominant LAB species. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry at elevated energy was used in combination with statistical methods to detect metabolite differences between traditional sour cream and butter. A total of 27,822 metabolites were detected in all samples, and Lys-Lys, isohexanal, palmitic acid, Leu-Val, and 2′-deoxycytidine were the most dominant metabolites found in all samples. In addition, 27 significantly different metabolites were detected between the sour cream and butter samples, including short peptides, organic acids, and amino acids. Based on correlation analyses between the most prevalent bacterial species and the main metabolites in sour cream, we conclude that there may be a connection between the dominant LAB species and these metabolites. This study combined omics techniques to analyze the bacterial diversity and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter, and we hope that our findings will enrich species resource libraries and provide valuable resources for further research on dairy product flavor.


September 22, 2019  |  

Effect of Chinese rice wine sludge on the production of Chinese steamed buns

Chinese rice wine sludge (CRWS), analogous to beer yeast sludge, is the filter cake remaining after squeezing the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine. CRWS contains high levels of protein (44.74%), nonstructural carbohydrates (37.33%), crude fiber (13.5%), and essential amino acids, which could enhance the trophic value of Chinese steamed buns. In our research, the microbiota of CRWS (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus sp.) was analyzed at the species level by single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology. Interestingly, the microbiota of CRWS was similar to that of the starter dough typically used to prepare Chinese steamed buns. Incorporation of CRWS significantly influenced the pasting properties and farinograph characteristics of the dough, which control the texture of the Chinese steamed buns, and supplementation with 5~30% CRWS caused the properties of the resulting buns to be more similar to those of northern-style steamed buns. CRWS addition also significantly enhanced the content of aroma compounds in the Chinese steamed buns.


September 22, 2019  |  

100K Pathogen Genome Project.

The 100K Pathogen Genome Project is producing draft and closed genome sequences from diverse pathogens. This project expanded globally to include a snapshot of global bacterial genome diversity. The genomes form a sequence database that has a variety of uses from systematics to public health. Copyright © 2017 Weimer.


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