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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metagenomic binning and association of plasmids with bacterial host genomes using DNA methylation.

Shotgun metagenomics methods enable characterization of microbial communities in human microbiome and environmental samples. Assembly of metagenome sequences does not output whole genomes, so computational binning methods have been developed to cluster sequences into genome ‘bins’. These methods exploit sequence composition, species abundance, or chromosome organization but cannot fully distinguish closely related species and strains. We present a binning method that incorporates bacterial DNA methylation signatures, which are detected using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Our method takes advantage of these endogenous epigenetic barcodes to resolve individual reads and assembled contigs into species- and strain-level bins. We validate our method using synthetic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of Burkholderia fungorum in the urine of an individual with spinal cord injury and augmentation cystoplasty using 16S sequencing: copathogen or innocent bystander?

People with neuropathic bladder (NB) secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk for multiple genitourinary complications, the most frequent of which is urinary tract infection (UTI). Despite the high frequency with which UTI occurs, our understanding of the role of urinary microbes in health and disease is limited. In this paper, we present the first prospective case study integrating symptom reporting, urinalysis, urine cultivation, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing of the urine microbiome.A 55-year-old male with NB secondary to SCI contributed 12 urine samples over an 8-month period during asymptomatic, symptomatic, and postantibiotic periods. All bacteria…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metataxonomic and metagenomic approaches vs. culture-based techniques for clinical pathology.

Diagnoses that are both timely and accurate are critically important for patients with life-threatening or drug resistant infections. Technological improvements in High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) have led to its use in pathogen detection and its application in clinical diagnoses of infectious diseases. The present study compares two HTS methods, 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing (metataxonomics) and whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing (metagenomics), in their respective abilities to match the same diagnosis as traditional culture methods (culture inference) for patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). The metagenomic analysis was able to produce the same diagnosis as culture methods at the species-level for five…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam in Klebsiella pneumoniae due to porin mutations and the increased expression of KPC-3.

We reported the first clinical case of a ceftazidime-avibactam resistant KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (1), from a patient with no history of ceftazidime-avibactam therapy. We now present data documenting mechanisms of ceftazidime-avibactam resistance in this isolate. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on two isolates: KP1245 (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC, 4 µg/ml; from blood on hospital day 1; referred to as isolate 1 in our previous report [1]) and KP1244 (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC, 32 µg/ml; from blood on hospital day 2; referred to as isolate 2 in our previous report [2]), using MiSeq (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and PacBio RSII (Menlo Park, CA) systems (2).…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Stalking a lethal superbug by whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetics: Influence on unraveling a major hospital outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

From July 2010-April 2013, Leipzig University Hospital experienced the largest outbreak of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-2-Kp) strain observed in Germany to date. After termination of the outbreak, we aimed to reconstruct transmission pathways by phylogenetics based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS).One hundred seventeen KPC-2-Kp isolates from 89 outbreak patients, 5 environmental KPC-2-Kp isolates, and 24 K pneumoniae strains not linked to the outbreak underwent WGS. Phylogenetic analysis was performed blinded to clinical data and based on the genomic reads.A patient from Greece was confirmed as the source of the outbreak. Transmission pathways for 11 out of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensively drug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 1642 carrying an IncX3 plasmid containing the blaKPC-2 gene associated with transposon Tn4401a.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacteriaceae carrying the bla(KPC) gene have emerged as a major global therapeutic concern. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complete sequences of plasmids from KPC-2 carbapenemase-producing XDR Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 1642 isolates.We performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequencing to characterize the plasmid-mediated KPC-2-producing E. coli clinical isolates.The isolates were resistant to most available antibiotics, including meropenem, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The isolates were identified as the rare ST1642 by MLST. The isolates carried four plasmids: the first 69-kb conjugative…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete nucleotide sequences of two KPC-2-encoding plasmids from the same Citrobacter freundii isolate.

Large amounts of antibiotics are released from humans and animals into aquatic environments and lead to an increased abundance of environmental MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to public health. It is worrisome that the entry of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) into the environment is increasingly reported; these carbapenem-resistant bacteria pose a severe health threat as few therapeutic options are available for such pathogens. Although culture-independent approaches are capable of revealing the vast genetic diversity of the environmental resistome, there are few data regarding deeper characterization of mechanisms of environmental CPE isolates. Here, we describe the complete sequences of two…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome-sequencing characterization of bloodstream infection-causing hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae of capsular serotype K2 and ST374.

Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae variants (hvKP) have been increasingly reported worldwide, causing metastasis of severe infections such as liver abscesses and bacteremia. The capsular serotype K2 hvKP strains show diverse multi-locus sequence types (MLSTs), but with limited genetics and virulence information. In this study, we report a hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae strain, RJF293, isolated from a human bloodstream sample in a Chinese hospital. It caused a metastatic infection and fatal septic shock in a critical patient. The microbiological features and genetic background were investigated with multiple approaches. The Strain RJF293 was determined to be multilocis sequence type (ST) 374 and serotype K2,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Translating genomics into practice for real-time surveillance and response to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: evidence from a complex multi-institutional KPC outbreak.

Until recently, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were rarely identified in Australia. Following an increase in the number of incident cases across the state of Victoria, we undertook a real-time combined genomic and epidemiological investigation. The scope of this study included identifying risk factors and routes of transmission, and investigating the utility of genomics to enhance traditional field epidemiology for informing management of established widespread outbreaks.All KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates referred to the state reference laboratory from 2012 onwards were included. Whole-genome sequencing was performed in parallel with a detailed descriptive epidemiological investigation of each case, using Illumina sequencing on each…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Origin of the plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3.

fosA3 is the most commonly reported plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene among Enterobacteriaceae.To identify the origin of fosA3.The chromosome of Kluyvera georgiana clinical strain YDC799 was fully sequenced with single-molecule real-time sequencing. Comparative genetic analysis was performed for K. georgiana YDC799, K. georgiana type strain ATCC 51603 and representative fosA3-carrying plasmids. fosA genes were cloned in Escherichia coli to confirm function.K. georgiana YDC799 harboured fosA (designated fosAKG) and blaCTX-M-8 on the chromosome. The genetic environments surrounding fosA3 and bounded by IS26 were nearly identical with the corresponding regions of K. georgiana YDC799 and ATCC 51603. The amino acid sequence of FosAKG…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of clinical multilocus sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae from China.

The increasing prevalence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in clinical settings has been largely attributed to dissemination of organisms of specific multilocus sequence types, such as ST258 and ST11. Compared with the ST258 clone, which is prevalent in North America and Europe, ST11 is common in China but information regarding its genetic features remains scarce. In this study, we performed detailed genetic characterization of ST11 K. pneumoniae strains by analyzing whole-genome sequences of 58 clinical strains collected from diverse geographic locations in China. The ST11 genomes were found to be highly heterogeneous and clustered into at least three major lineages…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of N2-fixing model strain Klebsiella sp. nov. M5al, which produces plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and siderophores.

The bacterial strain M5al is a model strain for studying the molecular genetics of N2-fixation and molecular engineering of microbial production of platform chemicals 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain M5al, which belongs to a novel species closely related toKlebsiella michiganensis. M5al secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and colonizes rice roots but does not cause soft rot disease. M5al also produces siderophores and contains the gene clusters for synthesis and transport of yersiniabactin which is a critical virulence factor forKlebsiellapathogens in causing human disease. We propose that the model strain M5al can be…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Dissemination of KPC-2-encoding IncX6 plasmids among multiple Enterobacteriaceae species in a single Chinese hospital.

Forty-five KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated from multiple departments in a Chinese public hospital from 2014 to 2015. Genome sequencing of four representative strains, namely Proteus mirabilis GN2, Serratia marcescens GN26, Morganella morganii GN28, and Klebsiella aerogenes E20, indicated the presence of blaKPC-2-carrying IncX6 plasmids pGN2-KPC, pGN26-KPC, pGN28-KPC, and pE20-KPC in the four strains, respectively. These plasmids were genetically closely related to one another and to the only previously sequenced IncX6 plasmid, pKPC3_SZ. Each of the plasmids carried a single accessory module containing the blaKPC-2/3-carrying ?Tn6296 derivatives. The ?Tn6292 element from pGN26-KPC also contained qnrS, which was absent from all…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular characterization of IMP-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates in Tokyo.

Although KPC enzymes are most common among carbapenemases produced by Enterobacter cloacae complex globally, the epidemiology varies from one country to another. While previous studies have suggested that IMP enzymes are most common in Japan, detailed analysis has been scarce thus far. Here, we carried out a molecular epidemiological study and plasmid analysis of IMP-1-producing E. cloacae complex isolates collected from three hospitals in central Tokyo using whole-genome sequencing. Seventy-one isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and 49 isolates were identified as Enterobacter hormaechei ST78. Isolates of ST78 were divided into three clades by core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Antibiotic resistance plasmids cointegrated into a megaplasmid harboring the blaOXA-427 carbapenemase gene.

OXA-427 is a new class D carbapenemase encountered in different species of Enterobacteriaceae in a Belgian hospital. To study the dispersal of this gene, we performed a comparative analysis of two plasmids containing the blaOXA-427 gene, isolated from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain and an Enterobacter cloacae complex strain. The two IncA/C2 plasmids containing blaOXA-427 share the same backbone; in the K. pneumoniae strain, however, this plasmid is cointegrated into an IncFIb plasmid, forming a 321-kb megaplasmid with multiple multiresistance regions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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