April 21, 2020  |  

Biphasic cellular adaptations and ecological implications of Alteromonas macleodii degrading a mixture of algal polysaccharides.

Algal polysaccharides are an important bacterial nutrient source and central component of marine food webs. However, cellular and ecological aspects concerning the bacterial degradation of polysaccharide mixtures, as presumably abundant in natural habitats, are poorly understood. Here, we contextualize marine polysaccharide mixtures and their bacterial utilization in several ways using the model bacterium Alteromonas macleodii 83-1, which can degrade multiple algal polysaccharides and contributes to polysaccharide degradation in the oceans. Transcriptomic, proteomic and exometabolomic profiling revealed cellular adaptations of A. macleodii 83-1 when degrading a mix of laminarin, alginate and pectin. Strain 83-1 exhibited substrate prioritization driven by catabolite repression, with initial laminarin utilization followed by simultaneous alginate/pectin utilization. This biphasic phenotype coincided with pronounced shifts in gene expression, protein abundance and metabolite secretion, mainly involving CAZymes/polysaccharide utilization loci but also other functional traits. Distinct temporal changes in exometabolome composition, including the alginate/pectin-specific secretion of pyrroloquinoline quinone, suggest that substrate-dependent adaptations influence chemical interactions within the community. The ecological relevance of cellular adaptations was underlined by molecular evidence that common marine macroalgae, in particular Saccharina and Fucus, release mixtures of alginate and pectin-like rhamnogalacturonan. Moreover, CAZyme microdiversity and the genomic predisposition towards polysaccharide mixtures among Alteromonas spp. suggest polysaccharide-related traits as an ecophysiological factor, potentially relating to distinct ‘carbohydrate utilization types’ with different ecological strategies. Considering the substantial primary productivity of algae on global scales, these insights contribute to the understanding of bacteria-algae interactions and the remineralization of chemically diverse polysaccharide pools, a key step in marine carbon cycling.


April 21, 2020  |  

Carbohydrate catabolic capability of a Flavobacteriia bacterium isolated from hadal water.

Flavobacteriia are abundant in many marine environments including hadal waters, as demonstrated recently. However, it is unclear how this flavobacterial population adapts to hadal conditions. In this study, extensive comparative genomic analyses were performed for the flavobacterial strain Euzebyella marina RN62 isolated from the Mariana Trench hadal water in low abundance. The complete genome of RN62 possessed a considerable number of carbohydrate-active enzymes with a different composition. There was a predominance of GH family 13 proteins compared to closely related relatives, suggesting that RN62 has preserved a certain capacity for carbohydrate utilization and that the hadal ocean may hold an organic matter reservoir distinct from the surface ocean. Additionally, RN62 possessed potential intracellular cycling of the glycogen/starch pathway, which may serve as a strategy for carbon storage and consumption in response to nutrient pulse and starvation. Moreover, the discovery of higher glycoside hydrolase dissimilarities among Flavobacteriia, compared to peptidases and transporters, suggested variation in polysaccharide utilization related traits as an important ecophysiological factor in response to environmental alterations, such as decreased labile organic carbon in hadal waters. The presence of abundant toxin exporting, transcription and signal transduction related genes in RN62 may further help to survive in hadal conditions, including high pressure/low temperature.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


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