Reproducible integration of multiple sequencing datasets to form high-confidence SNP, indel, and reference calls for five human genome reference materials
Benchmark small variant calls from the Genome in a Bottle Consortium (GIAB) for the CEPH/HapMap genome NA12878 (HG001) have been used extensively for developing, optimizing, and demonstrating performance of sequencing and bioinformatics methods. Here, we develop a reproducible, cloud-based pipeline to integrate multiple sequencing datasets and form benchmark calls, enabling application to arbitrary human genomes. We use these reproducible methods to form high-confidence calls with respect to GRCh37 and GRCh38 for HG001 and 4 additional broadly-consented genomes from the Personal Genome Project that are available as NIST Reference Materials. These new genomes’ broad, open consent with few restrictions on availability of samples and data is enabling a uniquely diverse array of applications. Our new methods produce 17% more high-confidence SNPs, 176% more indels, and 12% larger regions than our previously published calls. To demonstrate that these calls can be used for accurate benchmarking, we compare other high-quality callsets to ours (e.g., Illumina Platinum Genomes), and we demonstrate that the majority of discordant calls are errors in the other callsets, We also highlight challenges in interpreting performance metrics when benchmarking against imperfect high-confidence calls. We show that benchmarking tools from the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health can be used with our calls to stratify performance metrics by variant type and genome context and elucidate strengths and weaknesses of a method.