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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length transcriptome sequences and splice variants obtained by a combination of sequencing platforms applied to different root tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza and tanshinone biosynthesis.

Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, wherein its rhizome/roots are particularly valued. The corresponding bioactive components include the tanshinone diterpenoids, the biosynthesis of which is a subject of considerable interest. Previous investigations of the S. miltiorrhiza transcriptome have relied on short-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, and the vast majority of the resulting isotigs do not represent full-length cDNA sequences. Moreover, these efforts have been targeted at either whole plants or hairy root cultures. Here, we demonstrate that the tanshinone pigments are produced and accumulate in the root periderm, and apply a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hybrid sequencing of full-length cDNA transcripts of stems and leaves in Dendrobium officinale.

Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has been carried out on their alternatively spliced isoforms in D. officinale. In addition, information regarding the translocation of sugars from leaves to stems in D. officinale also remains limited. We analyzed the polysaccharide content of D. officinale leaves and stems, and completed in-depth transcriptome sequencing of these two diverse tissue types using second-generation sequencing (SGS) and single-molecule…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Global identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to phenolic acid biosynthetic genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing) of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and four alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of the ancient tracheophyte Selaginella tamariscina reveals evolutionary features relevant to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Resurrection plants, which are the “gifts” of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying the genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27 761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is an almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive Selaginella moellendorffii. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses highlight the unique…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Complex interplay among DNA modification, noncoding RNA expression and protein-coding RNA expression in Salvia miltiorrhiza chloroplast genome.

Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. As a first step to develop a chloroplast-based genetic engineering method for the over-production of active components from S. miltiorrhiza, we have analyzed the genome, transcriptome, and base modifications of the S. miltiorrhiza chloroplast. Total genomic DNA and RNA were extracted from fresh leaves and then subjected to strand-specific RNA-Seq and Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing analyses. Mapping the RNA-Seq reads to the genome assembly allowed us to determine the relative expression levels of 80 protein-coding genes. In addition, we identified 19 polycistronic transcription units and 136 putative antisense and…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Unlocking the mystery of the hard-to-sequence phage genome: PaP1 methylome and bacterial immunity.

Whole-genome sequencing is an important method to understand the genetic information, gene function, biological characteristics and survival mechanisms of organisms. Sequencing large genomes is very simple at present. However, we encountered a hard-to-sequence genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1. Shotgun sequencing method failed to complete the sequence of this genome.After persevering for 10 years and going over three generations of sequencing techniques, we successfully completed the sequence of the PaP1 genome with a length of 91,715 bp. Single-molecule real-time sequencing results revealed that this genome contains 51?N-6-methyladenines and 152?N-4-methylcytosines. Three significant modified sequence motifs were predicted, but not all of the sites…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Quality control of the traditional patent medicine Yimu Wan based on SMRT Sequencing and DNA barcoding.

Substandard traditional patent medicines may lead to global safety-related issues. Protecting consumers from the health risks associated with the integrity and authenticity of herbal preparations is of great concern. Of particular concern is quality control for traditional patent medicines. Here, we establish an effective approach for verifying the biological composition of traditional patent medicines based on single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and DNA barcoding. Yimu Wan (YMW), a classical herbal prescription recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was chosen to test the method. Two reference YMW samples were used to establish a standard method for analysis, which was then applied to three…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Biomonitoring for traditional herbal medicinal products using DNA metabarcoding and single molecule, real-time sequencing.

Global concerns have been paid to the potential hazard of traditional herbal medicinal products (THMPs). Substandard and counterfeit THMPs, including traditional Chinese patent medicine, health foods, dietary supplements, etc. are potential threats to public health. Recent marketplace studies using DNA barcoding have determined that the current quality control methods are not sufficient for ensuring the presence of authentic herbal ingredients and detection of contaminants/adulterants. An efficient biomonitoring method for THMPs is of great needed. Herein, metabarcoding and single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing were used to detect the multiple ingredients in Jiuwei Qianghuo Wan (JWQHW), a classical herbal prescription widely used in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chloroplast genome of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum (Ranunculaceae) derived from CCS reads using the PacBio RS platform.

The chloroplast genome (cp genome) of Aconitum barbatum var. puberulum was sequenced using the third-generation sequencing platform based on the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete cp genome of Aconitum, and we anticipate that it will have great value for phylogenetic studies of the Ranunculaceae family. In total, 23,498 CCS reads and 20,685,462 base pairs were generated, the mean read length was 880 bp, and the longest read was 2,261 bp. Genome coverage of 100% was achieved with a mean coverage of 132× and no gaps. The accuracy of the assembled genome…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, isolated from a patient with a respiratory tract infection.

We report the 6,498,072-bp complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from a patient with a respiratory tract infection in Chongqing, People’s Republic of China. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology, and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 396-fold sequence coverage. Copyright © 2015 Lu et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics.

Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of symmetrical RNA editing events in the mitochondria of Salvia miltiorrhiza by strand-specific RNA sequencing.

Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely-used medicinal plants. Here, we systematically analyzed the RNA editing events in its mitochondria. We developed a pipeline using REDItools to predict RNA editing events from stand-specific RNA-Seq data. The predictions were validated using reverse transcription, RT-PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing experiments. Putative sequences motifs were characterized. Comparative analyses were carried out between S. miltiorrhiza, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. We discovered 1123 editing sites, including 225 “C to U” sites in the protein-coding regions. Fourteen of sixteen (87.5%) sites were validated. Three putative DNA motifs were identified around the predicted sites. The…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gene losses and partial deletion of small single-copy regions of the chloroplast genomes of two hemiparasitic Taxillus species.

Numerous variations are known to occur in the chloroplast genomes of parasitic plants. We determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of two hemiparasitic species, Taxillus chinensis and T. sutchuenensis, using Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. These species are the first members of the family Loranthaceae to be sequenced. The complete chloroplast genomes of T. chinensis and T. sutchuenensis comprise circular 121,363 and 122,562 bp-long molecules with quadripartite structures, respectively. Compared with the chloroplast genomes of Nicotiana tabacum and Osyris alba, all ndh genes as well as three ribosomal protein genes, seven tRNA genes, four ycf genes, and the infA gene…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009?bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful…

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