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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic basis of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 gene.

Compared with plasmid-borne mcr-1, the occurrence of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 is rare although it has been reported in several cases. This study aimed to investigate the genetic features of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 among Escherichia coli strains as well as the potential genetic basis governing mobilisation of mcr-1 in bacterial chromosomes. The genome sequences of 16 E. coli strains containing a chromosomal mcr-1 gene were obtained and analysed. Phylogenetic and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis demonstrated that mcr-1 was associated with four major types of genetic arrangements, namely ISApl1-mcr1-orf, Tn6330, complex Tn6330 and ?Tn6330 in chromosomes of genetically unrelated E. coli strains. The mcr-1-carrying…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genomic analysis of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium isolate cultured from ready-to-eat pork in China carrying one large plasmid containing mcr-1.

One mcr-1-carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S. Derby (n = 8), S. Typhimurium (n = 6), and S. Enteritidis (n = 6). One S. Typhimurium isolate (S. Typhimurium WW012) cultured from RTE prepared…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains with diverse spatial isolation.

Cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains are currently one of the few known cocci-shaped spore-forming bacteria, yet we know very little about the genomics. The goal of this study is to utilize comparative genomics to investigate the diversity of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains that differ in their geographical isolation and show different nutritional requirements.For this study, we sequenced 28 genomes of cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains isolated from 13 different locations around the world. We generated the first six complete genomes and methylomes utilizing PacBio sequencing, and an additional 22 draft genomes using Illumina sequencing. Genomic analysis revealed that cocci-shaped Sporosarcina strains contained an average genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Coexistence of mcr-1, blaKPC-2 and two copies of fosA3 in a clinical Escherichia coli strain isolated from urine.

Here we report the first clinical Escherichia coli isolate co-harboring mcr-1, blaKPC-2 and two copies of fosA3 from China. The five plasmids of the isolate were completely sequenced and analyzed. Gene mcr-1 and blaKPC-2 were located on IncI2 and IncR plasmid, respectively. A variety of other resistance determinants such as fosA3 (two copies), blaCTX-M-123, blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-65 were also identified from the rest plasmids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mosaic structure as the main feature of Mycobacterium bovis BCG genomes

Background: The genome stability of attenuated live BCG vaccine preventing the acute forms of childhood tuberculosis is an important aspect of vaccine production. The pur- pose of our study was a whole genome comparative analysis of BCG sub-strains and identification of potential triggers of sub-strains’ transition. Results: Genomes of three BCG Russia seed lots (1963, 1982, 2006 years) have been sequenced, and the stability of vaccine sub-strain genomes has been confirmed. A com- parative genome analysis of nine Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three M. bovis strains revealed their specific genome features associated with prophage profiles. A number of prophage-coded homologs…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensive genomic diversity among Mycobacterium marinum strains revealed by whole genome sequencing.

Mycobacterium marinum is the causative agent for the tuberculosis-like disease mycobacteriosis in fish and skin lesions in humans. Ubiquitous in its geographical distribution, M. marinum is known to occupy diverse fish as hosts. However, information about its genomic diversity is limited. Here, we provide the genome sequences for 15 M. marinum strains isolated from infected humans and fish. Comparative genomic analysis of these and four available genomes of the M. marinum strains M, E11, MB2 and Europe reveal high genomic diversity among the strains, leading to the conclusion that M. marinum should be divided into two different clusters, the “M”-…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of multi-drug resistant, MCR-1 and ESBL-coproducing ST117 Escherichia coli from diseased chickens in Northeast China

An endemic multi-drug resistant ST117 E. coli isolate coproducing MCR-1 and 3 ESBL loci was, for the first time, detected from diseased chicken, Liaoning Province, in Northeast China, from 2011 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 5 unique plasmids, namely pHXH-1, pHXH-2, pHXH-3, pHXH-4 and pHXH-5). Among them, pHXH1 and pHXH4 encode ESBL, and pHXH-5 mediates MCR-1 colistin resistance. The results indicate that the potentially-national dissemination of MCR-1-positive pathogens with pan-drug resistance proceeds via food chains.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Variant O89 O-antigen of E. coli is associated with group 1 capsule loci and multidrug resistance.

Bacterial surface polysaccharides play significant roles in fitness and virulence. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, major surface polysaccharides are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsule, representing O- and K-antigens, respectively. There are multiple combinations of O:K types, many of which are well-characterized and can be related to ecotype or pathotype. In this investigation, we have identified a novel O:K permutation resulting through a process of major genome reorganization in a clade of E. coli. A multidrug-resistant, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain – E. coli 26561 – represented a prototype of strains combining a locus variant of O89 and group 1 capsular…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of carbapenem resistance by transposition and conjugation among Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a worldwide problem. To understand the carbapenem-resistance mechanisms and their spreading among P. aeruginosa strains, whole genome sequences were determined of two extensively drug-resistant strains that are endemic in Dutch hospitals. Strain Carb01 63 is of O-antigen serotype O12 and of sequence type ST111, whilst S04 90 is a serotype O11 strain of ST446. Both strains carry a gene for metallo-ß-lactamase VIM-2 flanked by two aacA29 genes encoding aminoglycoside acetyltransferases on a class 1 integron. The integron is located on the chromosome in strain Carb01 63 and on a plasmid in strain S04…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Comparative genomics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145:H28 demonstrates a common evolutionary lineage with Escherichia coli O157:H7.

Although serotype O157:H7 is the predominant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC that cause severe foodborne illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome have increased worldwide. In fact, non-O157 serotypes are now estimated to cause over half of all the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cases, and outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC infections are frequently associated with serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Currently, there are no complete genomes for O145 in public databases.We determined the complete genome sequences of two O145 strains (EcO145), one linked to a US lettuce-associated outbreak (RM13514) and one to a Belgium ice-cream-associated outbreak…

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