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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The pathogenic mechanisms of Tilletia horrida as revealed by comparative and functional genomics.

Tilletia horrida is a soil-borne, mononucleate basidiomycete fungus with a biotrophic lifestyle that causes rice kernel smut, a disease that is distributed throughout hybrid rice growing areas worldwide. Here we report on the high-quality genome sequence of T. horrida; it is composed of 23.2?Mb that encode 7,729 predicted genes and 6,973 genes supported by RNA-seq. The genome contains few repetitive elements that account for 8.45% of the total. Evolutionarily, T. horrida lies close to the Ustilago fungi, suggesting grass species as potential hosts, but co-linearity was not observed between T. horrida and the barley smut Ustilago hordei. Genes and functions…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Assembling the genome of the African wild rice Oryza longistaminata by exploiting synteny in closely related Oryza species.

The African wild rice species Oryza longistaminata has several beneficial traits compared to cultivated rice species, such as resistance to biotic stresses, clonal propagation via rhizomes, and increased biomass production. To facilitate breeding efforts and functional genomics studies, we de-novo assembled a high-quality, haploid-phased genome. Here, we present our assembly, with a total length of 351?Mb, of which 92.2% was anchored onto 12 chromosomes. We detected 34,389 genes and 38.1% of the genome consisted of repetitive content. We validated our assembly by a comparative linkage analysis and by examining well-characterized gene families. This genome assembly will be a useful resource…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Eco-friendly Management of Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) of Wheat

Karnal bunt incited by Neovossia indica is one of the most important disease of wheat crop. To develop an eco-friendly management practice against Karnal bunt of wheat, integration of fungicidal seed treatment with foliar sprays of phytoextracts, bio-control agent and fungicide revealed. Uses of Thiram 75DS or Kavach 75WP @2g/Kg, Dithane M-45 or Captan 50WP@2.5g/Kg, Vitavax 75WP@2.5g/Kg, Tilt 25EC or Raxil 2DS@1mL/Kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens@5 mL/Kg or Trichoderma viride (Ecoderma) or T. harzianum@5 mL/Kg seed treatment for eliminating primary inoculum (teliospores). Seed soaking in Lantana (L. camara) or Eucalyptus (E. globulus) or Akh (Calotropis procera) or Kali basuti (Eupatorium adenophorum)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic discovery of the hypsin gene and biosynthetic pathways for terpenoids in Hypsizygus marmoreus.

Hypsizygus marmoreus (Beech mushroom) is a popular ingredient in Asian cuisine. The medicinal effects of its bioactive compounds such as hypsin and hypsiziprenol have been reported, but the genetic basis or biosynthesis of these components is unknown.In this study, we sequenced a reference strain of H. marmoreus (Haemi 51,987-8). We evaluated various assembly strategies, and as a result the Allpaths and PBJelly produced the best assembly. The resulting genome was 42.7 Mbp in length and annotated with 16,627 gene models. A putative gene (Hypma_04324) encoding the antifungal and antiproliferative hypsin protein with 75% sequence identity with the previously known N-terminal…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A strain of an emerging Indian Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathotype defeats the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 without inducing a clade III SWEET gene and is nearly identical to a recent Thai isolate.

The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) injects transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) that bind and activate host “susceptibility” (S) genes important for disease. Clade III SWEET genes are major S genes for bacterial blight. The resistance genes xa5, which reduces TALE activity generally, and xa13, a SWEET11 allele not recognized by the cognate TALE, have been effectively deployed. However, strains that defeat both resistance genes individually were recently reported in India and Thailand. To gain insight into the mechanism(s), we completely sequenced the genome of one such strain from each country and examined the encoded TALEs. Strikingly,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unexpected patterns of segregation distortion at a selfish supergene in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

The Sb supergene in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta determines the form of colony social organization, with colonies whose inhabitants bear the element containing multiple reproductive queens and colonies lacking it containing only a single queen. Several features of this supergene – including suppressed recombination, presence of deleterious mutations, association with a large centromere, and “green-beard” behavior – suggest that it may be a selfish genetic element that engages in transmission ratio distortion (TRD), defined as significant departures in progeny allele frequencies from Mendelian inheritance ratios. We tested this possibility by surveying segregation ratios in embryo progenies of 101 queens…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An improved genome assembly for Larimichthys crocea reveals hepcidin gene expansion with diversified regulation and function.

Larimichthys crocea (large yellow croaker) is a type of perciform fish well known for its peculiar physiological properties and economic value. Here, we constructed an improved version of the L. crocea genome assembly, which contained 26,100 protein-coding genes. Twenty-four pseudo-chromosomes of L. crocea were also reconstructed, comprising 90% of the genome assembly. This improved assembly revealed several expansions in gene families associated with olfactory detection, detoxification, and innate immunity. Specifically, six hepcidin genes (LcHamps) were identified in L. crocea, possibly resulting from lineage-specific gene duplication. All LcHamps possessed similar genomic structures and functional domains, but varied substantially with respect to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of Weissella koreensis reveal its metabolic and fermentative features during kimchi fermentation

The genomic and metabolic features of Weissella koreensis, one of the major lactic acid bacteria in kimchi, were investigated through genomic, metabolic, and transcriptomic analyses for the genomes of strains KCTC 3621T, KACC 15510, and WiKim0080. W. koreensis strains were intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and harbored potential hemolysin genes that were actively transcribed although no hemolysin activity was detected. KEGG and reconstructed fermentative metabolic pathways displayed that W. koreensis strains commonly employ the heterolactic pathway to produce d-lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, d-sorbitol, thiamine, and folate from various carbohydrates including d-glucose, d-mannose, d-lactose, l-malate, d-xylose, l-arabinose, d-ribose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and gluconate, and strains KCTC 3621T and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic analysis revealed rapid differentiation in the pathogenicity-related gene repertoires between Pyricularia oryzae and Pyricularia penniseti isolated from a Pennisetum grass.

A number of Pyricularia species are known to infect different grass species. In the case of Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), distinct populations are known to be adapted to a wide variety of grass hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. The genome sizes of Pyricularia species are typical for filamentous ascomycete fungi [~?40 Mbp for P. oryzae, and ~?45 Mbp for P. grisea]. Genome plasticity, mediated in part by deletions promoted by recombination between repetitive elements [Genome Res 26:1091-1100, 2016, Nat Rev Microbiol 10:417-430,2012] and transposable elements [Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:483-503,2017] contributes to host adaptation. Therefore, comparisons of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

N6-methyladenine DNA methylation in Japonica and Indica rice genomes and its association with gene expression, plant development, and stress responses.

N6-Methyladenine (6mA) DNA methylation has recently been implicated as a potential new epigenetic marker in eukaryotes, including the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the conservation and divergence of 6mA distribution patterns and functions in plants remain elusive. Here we report high-quality 6mA methylomes at single-nucleotide resolution in rice based on substantially improved genome sequences of two rice cultivars, Nipponbare (Nip; Japonica) and 93-11 (Indica). Analysis of 6mA genomic distribution and its association with transcription suggest that 6mA distribution and function is rather conserved between rice and Arabidopsis. We found that 6mA levels are positively correlated with the expression of key…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii genomes shows a high level of genome plasticity and warrants separation into new species-level taxa.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a ubiquitous member of the human gut microbiome, constituting up to 15% of the total bacteria in the human gut. Substantial evidence connects decreased levels of F. prausnitzii with the onset and progression of certain forms of inflammatory bowel disease, which has been attributed to its anti-inflammatory potential. Two phylogroups of F. prausnitzii have been identified, with a decrease in phylogroup I being a more sensitive marker of intestinal inflammation. Much of the genomic and physiological data available to date was collected using phylogroup II strains. Little analysis of F. prausnitzii genomes has been performed so far…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene duplication: Convergent evolution in multiple plant species.

One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in eight weed species, ranging from 3-5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size. The replicated sequence contains several classes of mobile genetic elements including helitrons, raising the intriguing possibility of extra-chromosomal…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombax ceiba

Bombax ceiba is a beautiful and deciduous tree with important economic and ecological values. Here, we sequenced the intact mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. ceiba on the PacBio sequencing platform (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA). The mitogenome is 594,390bp and is comprised of 35 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 25 tRNA genes. The phylogeny analysis suggested that B. ceiba was closely clustered with the genus Gossypium.

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Assessing genome assembly quality using the LTR Assembly Index (LAI).

Assembling a plant genome is challenging due to the abundance of repetitive sequences, yet no standard is available to evaluate the assembly of repeat space. LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the predominant interspersed repeat that is poorly assembled in draft genomes. Here, we propose a reference-free genome metric called LTR Assembly Index (LAI) that evaluates assembly continuity using LTR-RTs. After correcting for LTR-RT amplification dynamics, we show that LAI is independent of genome size, genomic LTR-RT content, and gene space evaluation metrics (i.e., BUSCO and CEGMA). By comparing genomic sequences produced by various sequencing techniques, we reveal the significant gain of…

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