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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hybrid error correction and de novo assembly of single-molecule sequencing reads.

Single-molecule sequencing instruments can generate multikilobase sequences with the potential to greatly improve genome and transcriptome assembly. However, the error rates of single-molecule reads are high, which has limited their use thus far to resequencing bacteria. To address this limitation, we introduce a correction algorithm and assembly strategy that uses short, high-fidelity sequences to correct the error in single-molecule sequences. We demonstrate the utility of this approach on reads generated by a PacBio RS instrument from phage, prokaryotic and eukaryotic whole genomes, including the previously unsequenced genome of the parrot Melopsittacus undulatus, as well as for RNA-Seq reads of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensive gene amplification as a mechanism for piperacillin-tazobactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

Although the TEM-1 ß-lactamase (BlaTEM-1) hydrolyzes penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, organisms expressing this enzyme are typically susceptible to ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP). However, our previous work led to the discovery of 28 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to TZP that contained only blaTEM-1 One of these isolates, E. coli 907355, was investigated further in this study. E. coli 907355 exhibited significantly higher ß-lactamase activity and BlaTEM-1 protein levels when grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of TZP. A corresponding TZP-dependent increase in blaTEM-1 copy number was also observed, with as many as 113 copies of the gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Knockout of rapC improves the bacillomycin D yield based on de novo genome sequencing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fmbJ.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a Gram-positive and soil-dwelling bacterium, could produce secondary metabolites that suppress plant pathogens. In this study, we provided the whole genome sequence results of B. amyloliquefaciens fmbJ, which had one circular chromosome of 4?193?344 bp with 4249 genes, 87 tRNA genes, and 27 rRNA genes. In addition, fmbJ was found to contain several gene clusters of antimicrobial lipopeptides (bacillomycin D, surfactin, and fengycin), and bacillomycin D homologues were further comprehensively identified. To clarify the influence of rapC regulating the synthesis of lipopeptide on the yield of bacillomycin D, rapC gene in fmbJ was successfully deleted by the marker-free…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-quality assembly of the reference genome for scarlet sage, Salvia splendens, an economically important ornamental plant.

Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler, scarlet or tropical sage, is a tender herbaceous perennial widely introduced and seen in public gardens all over the world. With few molecular resources, breeding is still restricted to traditional phenotypic selection, and the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation remain unknown. Hence, a high-quality reference genome will be very valuable for marker-assisted breeding, genome editing, and molecular genetics.We generated 66 Gb and 37 Gb of raw DNA sequences, respectively, from whole-genome sequencing of a largely homozygous scarlet sage inbred line using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms. The PacBio de novo assembly yielded…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome and transcriptome maps of the entirely black native Korean chicken breed Yeonsan Ogye.

Yeonsan Ogye (YO), an indigenous Korean chicken breed (Gallus gallus domesticus), has entirely black external features and internal organs. In this study, the draft genome of YO was assembled using a hybrid de novo assembly method that takes advantage of high-depth Illumina short reads (376.6X) and low-depth Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long reads (9.7X).The contig and scaffold NG50s of the hybrid de novo assembly were 362.3 Kbp and 16.8 Mbp, respectively. The completeness (97.6%) of the draft genome (Ogye_1.1) was evaluated with single-copy orthologous genes using Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs and found to be comparable to the current chicken reference genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome survey of the freshwater mussel Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Bivalvia: Unionida) using a hybrid de novo assembly approach.

Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida) serve an important role as aquatic ecosystem engineers but are one of the most critically imperilled groups of animals. Here, we used a combination of sequencing strategies to assemble and annotate a draft genome of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis, which will serve as a valuable genomic resource given the ecological value and unique “doubly uniparental inheritance” mode of mitochondrial DNA transmission of freshwater mussels. The genome described here was obtained by combining high-coverage short reads (65× genome coverage of Illumina paired-end and 11× genome coverage of mate-pairs sequences) with low-coverage Pacific Biosciences long reads (0.3× genome coverage). Briefly,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Novel enterobacter lineage as leading cause of nosocomial outbreak involving carbapenemase-producing strains.

We investigated unusual carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates (n = 8) in the novel sequence type (ST) 873, which caused nosocomial infections in 2 hospitals in France. Whole-genome sequence typing showed the 1-year persistence of the epidemic strain, which harbored a blaVIM-4 ST1-IncHI2 plasmid, in 1 health institution and 2 closely related strains harboring blaCTX-M-15 in the other. These isolates formed a new subgroup in the E. hormaechei metacluster, according to their hsp60 sequences and phylogenomic analysis. The average nucleotide identities, specific biochemical properties, and pangenomic and functional investigations of isolates suggested isolates of a novel species that had acquired…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First draft genome assembly of the Argane tree (Argania spinosa)

Background: The Argane tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) is an endemic tree of southwestern Morocco that plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role for a dense human population in an arid zone. Several studies confirmed the importance of this species as a food and feed source and as a resource for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic compounds. Unfortunately, the argane tree ecosystem is facing significant threats from environmental changes (global warming, over-population) and over-exploitation. Limited research has been conducted, however, on argane tree genetics and genomics, which hinders its conservation and genetic improvement. Methods: Here, we present a draft genome assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The chromosome-level genome assemblies of two rattans (Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana).

Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana are two representative rattans, the most significant material sources for the rattan industry. However, the lack of reference genome sequences is a major obstacle for basic and applied biology on rattan.We produced two chromosome-level genome assemblies of C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana using Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Hi-C sequencing data. A total of ~730 Gb and ~682 Gb of raw data covered the predicted genome lengths (~1.98 Gb of C. simplicifolius and ~1.61 Gb of D. jenkinsiana) to ~372 × and ~426 × read depths, respectively. The two de novo genome assemblies, ~1.94 Gb and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome assembly of the invasive cane toad, Rhinella marina.

The cane toad (Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinus) is a species native to Central and South America that has spread across many regions of the globe. Cane toads are known for their rapid adaptation and deleterious impacts on native fauna in invaded regions. However, despite an iconic status, there are major gaps in our understanding of cane toad genetics. The availability of a genome would help to close these gaps and accelerate cane toad research.We report a draft genome assembly for R. marina, the first of its kind for the Bufonidae family. We used a combination of long-read Pacific Biosciences…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome sequence of wild Prunus yedoensis reveals massive inter-specific hybridization between sympatric flowering cherries.

Hybridization is an important evolutionary process that results in increased plant diversity. Flowering Prunus includes popular cherry species that are appreciated worldwide for their flowers. The ornamental characteristics were acquired both naturally and through artificially hybridizing species with heterozygous genomes. Therefore, the genome of hybrid flowering Prunus presents important challenges both in plant genomics and evolutionary biology.We use long reads to sequence and analyze the highly heterozygous genome of wild Prunus yedoensis. The genome assembly covers >?93% of the gene space; annotation identified 41,294 protein-coding genes. Comparative analysis of the genome with 16 accessions of six related taxa shows that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic approaches for studying crop evolution.

Understanding how crop plants evolved from their wild relatives and spread around the world can inform about the origins of agriculture. Here, we review how the rapid development of genomic resources and tools has made it possible to conduct genetic mapping and population genetic studies to unravel the molecular underpinnings of domestication and crop evolution in diverse crop species. We propose three future avenues for the study of crop evolution: establishment of high-quality reference genomes for crops and their wild relatives; genomic characterization of germplasm collections; and the adoption of novel methodologies such as archaeogenetics, epigenomics, and genome editing.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the antimonite- and arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Bosea sp. AS-1 and its potential application in arsenic removal.

Arsenic (As) and antinomy (Sb) usually coexist in natural environments where both of them pollute soils and water. Microorganisms that oxidize arsenite [As(III)] and tolerate Sb have great potential in As and Sb bioremediation, In this study, a Gram-negative bacterial strain, Bosea sp. AS-1, was isolated from a mine slag sample collected in Xikuangshan Sb mine in China. AS-1 could tolerate 120?mM of As(III) and 50?mM of antimonite [Sb(III)]. It could also oxidize 2?mM of As(III) or Sb(III) completely under heterotrophic and aerobic conditions. Interestingly, strain AS-1 preferred to oxidize As(III) with yeast extract as the carbon source, whereas Sb(III)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome of Tenualosa ilisha from the river Padma, Bangladesh.

Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha), is a popular fish of Bangladesh belonging to the Clupeidae family. An anadromous species, like the salmon and many other migratory fish, it is a unique species that lives in the sea and travels to freshwater rivers for spawning. During its entire life, Tenualosa ilisha migrates both from sea to freshwater and vice versa.The genome of Tenualosa ilisha collected from the river Padma of Rajshahi, Bangladesh has been sequenced and its de novo hybrid assembly and structural annotations are being reported here. Illumina and PacBio sequencing platforms were used for high depth sequencing and the draft…

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