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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of consecutive Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a single patient.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, and thus it is required to investigate how it disseminate in hospitals and infect patients. We performed whole genome sequencing for 24 A. baumannii strains isolated successively from the blood of a single patient to evaluate whether repeated infections were due to re-infection or relapse infection and to investigate within-host evolution. The whole genome of the first strain, BL1, was sequenced de novo using the PacBio RSII system. BL2-BL24, were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq4000 and mapped to the genome sequences of BL1. We identified 42 single-nucleotide variations among the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Microevolution of Neisseria lactamica during nasopharyngeal colonisation induced by controlled human infection.

Neisseria lactamica is a harmless coloniser of the infant respiratory tract, and has a mutually-excluding relationship with the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Here we report controlled human infection with genomically-defined N. lactamica and subsequent bacterial microevolution during 26 weeks of colonisation. We find that most mutations that occur during nasopharyngeal carriage are transient indels within repetitive tracts of putative phase-variable loci associated with host-microbe interactions (pgl and lgt) and iron acquisition (fetA promotor and hpuA). Recurrent polymorphisms occurred in genes associated with energy metabolism (nuoN, rssA) and the CRISPR-associated cas1. A gene encoding a large hypothetical protein was often mutated in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic surveillance of Enterococcus faecium reveals limited sharing of strains and resistance genes between livestock and humans in the United Kingdom.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is a major cause of nosocomial infection and is categorized as high priority by the World Health Organization global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the past, livestock have been proposed as a putative reservoir for drug-resistant E. faecium strains that infect humans, and isolates of the same lineage have been found in both reservoirs. We undertook cross-sectional surveys to isolate E. faecium (including VREfm) from livestock farms, retail meat, and wastewater treatment plants in the United Kingdom. More than 600 isolates from these sources were sequenced, and their relatedness and antibiotic resistance genes were compared…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A mcr-1-carrying conjugative IncX4 plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli ST278 strain isolated from dairy cow feces in Shanghai, China.

Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli, has been shown to acquire the colistin resistance gene mcr-1. A strain of E. coli, EC11, which is resistant to colistin, polymyxin B and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was isolated in 2016 from the feces of a dairy cow in Shanghai, China. Strain EC11 identifies with sequence type ST278 and is susceptible to 19 frequently used antibiotics. Whole genome sequencing of strain EC11 showed that this strain contains a 31-kb resistance plasmid, pEC11b, which belongs to the IncX4 group. The mcr-1 gene was shown to be inserted into a 2.6-kb mcr-1-pap2 cassette of pEC11b. Plasmid pEC11b also contained putative…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hypervirulent group A Streptococcus emergence in an acaspular background is associated with marked remodeling of the bacterial cell surface

Inactivating mutations in the control of virulence two-component regulatory system (covRS) often account for the hypervirulent phenotype in severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. As CovR represses production of the anti-phagocytic hyaluronic acid capsule, high level capsule production is generally considered critical to the hypervirulent phenotype induced by CovRS inactivation. There have recently been large outbreaks of GAS strains lacking capsule, but there are currently no data on the virulence of covRS-mutated, acapsular strains in vivo. We investigated the impact of CovRS inactivation in acapsular serotype M4 strains using a wild-type (M4-SC-1) and a naturally-occurring CovS-inactivated strain (M4-LC-1) that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome wide characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serogroup O6 isolates from multiple outbreaks and sporadic infections from 1975-2016.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea globally, particularly among children under the age of five in developing countries. ETEC O6 is the most common ETEC serogroup, yet the genome wide population structure of isolates of this serogroup is yet to be determined. In this study, we have characterized 40 ETEC O6 isolates collected between 1975-2016 by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing. To determine the relatedness of isolates, we evaluated two methods-whole genome high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (whole genome-hqSNP) and core genome SNP analyses using Lyve-SET and Parsnp respectively. All isolates were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Development of New Tools to Detect Colistin-Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae Strains.

The recent discovery of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin is of clinical concern. The worldwide screening of this resistance mechanism among samples of different origins has highlighted the urgent need to improve the detection of colistin-resistant isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories. Currently, phenotypic methods used to detect colistin resistance are not necessarily suitable as the main characteristic of the mcr genes is the low level of resistance that they confer, close to the clinical breakpoint recommended jointly by the CLSI and EUCAST expert systems (S?=?2?mg/L and R?>?2?mg/L). In this context, susceptibility testing recommendations for polymyxins have evolved…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Characterization of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from cephalic recording chambers in research macaques (Macaca spp.).

Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

PacBio assembly of a Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequence with Hi-C correction and manual annotation of the SICAvar gene family.

Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features.…

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