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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A Highly Unusual V1 Region of Env in an Elite Controller of HIV Infection.

HIV elite controllers represent a remarkable minority of patients who maintain normal CD4+ T-cell counts and low or undetectable viral loads for decades in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. To examine the possible contribution of virus attenuation to elite control, we obtained a primary HIV-1 isolate from an elite controller who had been infected for 19?years, the last 10 of which were in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Full-length sequencing of this isolate revealed a highly unusual V1 domain in Envelope (Env). The V1 domain in this HIV-1 strain was 49 amino acids, placing it in the top 1% of…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Complete HIV-1 genomes from single molecules: Diversity estimates in two linked transmission pairs using clustering and mutual information.

We sequenced complete HIV-1 genomes from single molecules using Single Molecule, Real- Time (SMRT) Sequencing and derive de novo full-length genome sequences. SMRT sequencing yields long-read sequencing results from individual DNA molecules with a rapid time-to-result. These attributes make it a useful tool for continuous monitoring of viral populations. The single-molecule nature of the sequencing method allows us to estimate variant subspecies and relative abundances by counting methods. We detail mathematical techniques used in viral variant subspecies identification including clustering distance metrics and mutual information. Sequencing was performed in order to better understand the relationships between the specific sequences of…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Rapid sequencing of HIV-1 genomes as single molecules from simple and complex samples.

Background: To better understand the relationships among HIV-1 viruses in linked transmission pairs, we sequenced several samples representing HIV transmission pairs from the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project (Lusaka, Zambia) using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing. Methods: Single molecules were sequenced as full-length (9.6 kb) amplicons directly from PCR products without shearing. This resulted in multiple, fully-phased, complete HIV-1 genomes for each patient. We examined Single Genome Amplification (SGA) prepped samples, as well as samples containing complex mixtures of genomes. We detail mathematical techniques used in viral variant subspecies identification, including clustering distance metrics and mutual information, which were used…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

High-throughput analysis of full-length proviral HIV-1 genomes from PBMCs.

Background: HIV-1 proviruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are felt to be an important reservoir of HIV-1 infection. Given that this pool represents an archival library, it can be used to study virus evolution and CD4+ T cell survival. Accurate study of this pool is burdened by difficulties encountered in sequencing a full-length proviral genome, typically accomplished by assembling overlapping pieces and imputing the full genome. Methodology: Cryopreserved PBMCs collected from a total of 8 HIV+ patients from 1997-2001 were used for genomic DNA extraction. Patients had been receiving cART for 2-8 years at the time samples were obtained.…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Sequencing complex mixtures of HIV-1 genomes with single-base resolution.

A large number of distinct HIV-1 genomes can be present in a single clinical sample from a patient chronically infected with HIV-1. We examined samples containing complex mixtures of near-full-length HIV-1 genomes. Single molecules were sequenced as near-full-length (9.6 kb) amplicons directly from PCR products without shearing. Mathematical analysis techniques deconvolved the complex mixture of reads into estimates of distinct near-full-length viral genomes with their relative abundances. We correctly estimated the originating genomes to single-base resolution along with their relative abundances for mixtures where the truth was known exactly by independent sequencing methods. Correct estimates were made even when genomes…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

High-accuracy, single-base resolution of near-full-length HIV genomes.

Background: The HIV-1 proviral reservoir is incredibly stable, even while undergoing antiretroviral therapy, and is seen as the major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Identifying and comprehensively characterizing this reservoir will be critical to achieving an HIV cure. Historically, this has been a tedious and labor intensive process, requiring high-replicate single-genome amplification reactions, or overlapping amplicons that are then reconstructed into full-length genomes by algorithmic imputation. Here, we present a deep sequencing and analysis method able to determine the exact identity and relative abundances of near-full-length HIV genomes from samples containing mixtures of genomes without shearing or complex bioinformatic reconstruction. Methods:…

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