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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Multi-platform discovery of haplotype-resolved structural variation in human genomes.

The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Platanus-allee is a de novo haplotype assembler enabling a comprehensive access to divergent heterozygous regions.

The ultimate goal for diploid genome determination is to completely decode homologous chromosomes independently, and several phasing programs from consensus sequences have been developed. These methods work well for lowly heterozygous genomes, but the manifold species have high heterozygosity. Additionally, there are highly divergent regions (HDRs), where the haplotype sequences differ considerably. Because HDRs are likely to direct various interesting biological phenomena, many genomic analysis targets fall within these regions. However, they cannot be accessed by existing phasing methods, and we have to adopt costly traditional methods. Here, we develop a de novo haplotype assembler, Platanus-allee ( http://platanus.bio.titech.ac.jp/platanus2 ), which…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Haplotype-aware diplotyping from noisy long reads.

Current genotyping approaches for single-nucleotide variations rely on short, accurate reads from second-generation sequencing devices. Presently, third-generation sequencing platforms are rapidly becoming more widespread, yet approaches for leveraging their long but error-prone reads for genotyping are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel statistical framework for the joint inference of haplotypes and genotypes from noisy long reads, which we term diplotyping. Our technique takes full advantage of linkage information provided by long reads. We validate hundreds of thousands of candidate variants that have not yet been included in the high-confidence reference set of the Genome-in-a-Bottle effort.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Construction of JRG (Japanese reference genome) with single-molecule real-time sequencing

In recent genome analyses, population-specific reference panels have indicated important. However, reference panels based on short-read sequencing data do not sufficiently cover long insertions. Therefore, the nature of long insertions has not been well documented. Here, we assembled a Japanese genome using single-molecule real-time sequencing data and characterized insertions found in the assembled genome. We identified 3691 insertions ranging from 100?bps to ~10,000?bps in the assembled genome relative to the international reference sequence (GRCh38). To validate and characterize these insertions, we mapped short-reads from 1070 Japanese individuals and 728 individuals from eight other populations to insertions integrated into GRCh38. With…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

HapIso: An accurate method for the haplotype-specific isoforms reconstruction from long single-molecule reads

Sequencing of RNA provides the possibility to study an individual’s transcriptome landscape and determine allelic expression ratios. Single-molecule protocols generate multi-kilobase reads longer than most transcripts allowing sequencing of complete haplotype isoforms. This allows partitioning the reads into two parental haplotypes. While the read length of the single-molecule protocols is long, the relatively high error rate limits the ability to accurately detect the genetic variants and assemble them into the haplotype-specific isoforms. In this paper, we present HapIso (Haplotype-specific Isoform Reconstruction), a method able to tolerate the relatively high error-rate of the single-molecule platform and partition the isoform reads into…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extreme haplotype variation in the desiccation-tolerant clubmoss Selaginella lepidophylla.

Plant genome size varies by four orders of magnitude, and most of this variation stems from dynamic changes in repetitive DNA content. Here we report the small 109?Mb genome of Selaginella lepidophylla, a clubmoss with extreme desiccation tolerance. Single-molecule sequencing enables accurate haplotype assembly of a single heterozygous S. lepidophylla plant, revealing extensive structural variation. We observe numerous haplotype-specific deletions consisting of largely repetitive and heavily methylated sequences, with enrichment in young Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. Such elements are active but rapidly deleted, suggesting “bloat and purge” to maintain a small genome size. Unlike all other land plant lineages, Selaginella has…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparison of phasing strategies for whole human genomes.

Humans are a diploid species that inherit one set of chromosomes paternally and one homologous set of chromosomes maternally. Unfortunately, most human sequencing initiatives ignore this fact in that they do not directly delineate the nucleotide content of the maternal and paternal copies of the 23 chromosomes individuals possess (i.e., they do not ‘phase’ the genome) often because of the costs and complexities of doing so. We compared 11 different widely-used approaches to phasing human genomes using the publicly available ‘Genome-In-A-Bottle’ (GIAB) phased version of the NA12878 genome as a gold standard. The phasing strategies we compared included laboratory-based assays…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of bdelloid rotifers: Insights from desiccating and nondesiccating species.

Bdelloid rotifers are a class of microscopic invertebrates that have existed for millions of years apparently without sex or meiosis. They inhabit a variety of temporary and permanent freshwater habitats globally, and many species are remarkably tolerant of desiccation. Bdelloids offer an opportunity to better understand the evolution of sex and recombination, but previous work has emphasised desiccation as the cause of several unusual genomic features in this group. Here, we present high-quality whole-genome sequences of 3 bdelloid species: Rotaria macrura and R. magnacalcarata, which are both desiccation intolerant, and Adineta ricciae, which is desiccation tolerant. In combination with the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Progressive approach for SNP calling and haplotype assembly using single molecular sequencing data.

Haplotype information is essential to the complete description and interpretation of genomes, genetic diversity and genetic ancestry. The new technologies can provide Single Molecular Sequencing (SMS) data that cover about 90% of positions over chromosomes. However, the SMS data has a higher error rate comparing to 1% error rate for short reads. Thus, it becomes very difficult for SNP calling and haplotype assembly using SMS reads. Most existing technologies do not work properly for the SMS data.In this paper, we develop a progressive approach for SNP calling and haplotype assembly that works very well for the SMS data. Our method…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

HapCHAT: adaptive haplotype assembly for efficiently leveraging high coverage in long reads.

Haplotype assembly is the process of assigning the different alleles of the variants covered by mapped sequencing reads to the two haplotypes of the genome of a human individual. Long reads, which are nowadays cheaper to produce and more widely available than ever before, have been used to reduce the fragmentation of the assembled haplotypes since their ability to span several variants along the genome. These long reads are also characterized by a high error rate, an issue which may be mitigated, however, with larger sets of reads, when this error rate is uniform across genome positions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Variation in human chromosome 21 ribosomal RNA genes characterized by TAR cloning and long-read sequencing.

Despite the key role of the human ribosome in protein biosynthesis, little is known about the extent of sequence variation in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) or its pre-rRNA and rRNA products. We recovered ribosomal DNA segments from a single human chromosome 21 using transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning in yeast. Accurate long-read sequencing of 13 isolates covering ~0.82 Mb of the chromosome 21 rDNA complement revealed substantial variation among tandem repeat rDNA copies, several palindromic structures and potential errors in the previous reference sequence. These clones revealed 101 variant positions in the 45S transcription unit and 235 in the intergenic spacer sequence.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A graph-based approach to diploid genome assembly.

Constructing high-quality haplotype-resolved de novo assemblies of diploid genomes is important for revealing the full extent of structural variation and its role in health and disease. Current assembly approaches often collapse the two sequences into one haploid consensus sequence and, therefore, fail to capture the diploid nature of the organism under study. Thus, building an assembler capable of producing accurate and complete diploid assemblies, while being resource-efficient with respect to sequencing costs, is a key challenge to be addressed by the bioinformatics community.We present a novel graph-based approach to diploid assembly, which combines accurate Illumina data and long-read Pacific Biosciences…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genomic architecture and molecular evolution of ant odorant receptors.

The massive expansions of odorant receptor (OR) genes in ant genomes are notable examples of rapid genome evolution and adaptive gene duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to gene family expansion remain poorly understood, partly because available ant genomes are fragmentary. Here, we present a highly contiguous, chromosome-level assembly of the clonal raider ant genome, revealing the largest known OR repertoire in an insect. While most ant ORs originate via local tandem duplication, we also observe several cases of dispersed duplication followed by tandem duplication in the most rapidly evolving OR clades. We found that areas of unusually high transposable…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Integrative haplotype estimation with sub-linear complexity

The number of human genomes being genotyped or sequenced increases exponentially and efficient haplotype estimation methods able to handle this amount of data are now required. Here, we present a new method, SHAPEIT4, which substantially improves upon other methods to process large genotype and high coverage sequencing datasets. It notably exhibits sub-linear scaling with sample size, provides highly accurate haplotypes and allows integrating external phasing information such as large reference panels of haplotypes, collections of pre-phased variants and long sequencing reads. We provide SHAPET4 in an open source format on https://odelaneau.github.io/shapeit4/ and demonstrate its performance in terms of accuracy and…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Assembling large genomes with single-molecule sequencing and locality-sensitive hashing.

Long-read, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing is routinely used to finish microbial genomes, but available assembly methods have not scaled well to larger genomes. We introduce the MinHash Alignment Process (MHAP) for overlapping noisy, long reads using probabilistic, locality-sensitive hashing. Integrating MHAP with the Celera Assembler enabled reference-grade de novo assemblies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster and a human hydatidiform mole cell line (CHM1) from SMRT sequencing. The resulting assemblies are highly continuous, include fully resolved chromosome arms and close persistent gaps in these reference genomes. Our assembly of D. melanogaster revealed previously unknown heterochromatic and telomeric transition sequences,…

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