April 21, 2020  |  

The Isolation and Characterization of Kronos, a Novel Caulobacter Rhizosphere Phage that is Similar to Lambdoid Phages.

Despite their ubiquity, relatively few bacteriophages have been characterized. Here, we set out to explore Caulobacter bacteriophages (caulophages) in the rhizosphere and characterized Kronos, the first caulophage isolated from the rhizosphere. Kronos is a member of the Siphoviridae family since it has a long flexible tail. In addition, an analysis of the Kronos genome indicated that many of the predicted proteins were distantly related to those of bacteriophages in the lambdoid family. Consistent with this observation, we were able to demonstrate the presence of cos sites that are similar to those found at the ends of lambdoid phage genomes. Moreover, Kronos displayed a relatively rare head and tail morphology compared to other caulophages but was similar to that of the lambdoid phages. Taken together, these data indicate that Kronos is distantly related to lambdoid phages and may represent a new Siphoviridae genus.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Saccharospirillum mangrovi HK-33T Sheds Light on the Ecological Role of a Bacterium in Mangrove Sediment Environment.

We present the genome sequence of Saccharospirillum mangrovi HK-33T, isolated from a mangrove sediment sample in Haikou, China. The complete genome of S. mangrovi HK-33T consisted of a single-circular chromosome with the size of 3,686,911 bp as well as an average G?+?C content of 57.37%, and contained 3,383 protein-coding genes, 4 operons of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes, and 52 tRNA genes. Genomic annotation indicated that the genome of S. mangrovi HK-33T had many genes related to oligosaccharide and polysaccharide degradation and utilization of polyhydroxyalkanoate. For nitrogen cycle, genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, and glutamine synthetase could be found. For phosphorus cycle, genes related to polyphosphate kinases (ppk1 and ppk2), the high-affinity phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system, and the low-affinity inorganic phosphate transporter (pitA) were predicted. For sulfur cycle, cysteine synthase and type III acyl coenzyme A transferase (dddD) coding genes were searched out. This study provides evidence about carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur metabolic patterns of S. mangrovi HK-33T and broadens our understandings about ecological roles of this bacterium in the mangrove sediment environment.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole-Genome Analysis of Halomonas sp. Soap Lake #7 Reveals It Possesses Putative Mrp Antiporter Operon Groups 1 and 2.

The genus Halomonas possesses bacteria that are halophilic or halotolerant and exhibit a wide range of pH tolerance. The genome of Halomonas sp. Soap Lake #7 was sequenced to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms for salt and pH tolerance in this genus. The bacterium’s genome was found to possess two complete multiple resistance and pH antiporter systems, Group 1 and Group 2. This is the first report of both multiple resistance and pH antiporter Groups 1 and 2 in the genome of a haloalkaliphilic bacterium. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


April 21, 2020  |  

Isolation, cloning and characterization of an azoreductase and the effect of salinity on its expression in a halophilic bacterium.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of azo dye decolorization is important for the development of effective bioremediation for textile-colored wastewater. A halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. strain GT was isolated, which could degrade the azo dye Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR at 10% NaCl. The complete genome sequence of this strain was obtained using the PacBio RS II platform. Genome annotation revealed that four proteins are related to decolorization of azo dyes, such as azoreductase, laccases, benzene 1,2-dioxygenase, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The putative azoreductase gene of Halomonas sp. strain GT responsible for the decolorization of azo dye in high salt environment was isolated. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the azoG (azoreductase gene of Halomonas sp. strain GT) and its homologs constituted a new branch of the NADH depending azoreductases, with all the homologous sequence of the protein from halophilic bacteria. At high NaCl concentrations, azoreductase gene expression and azoreductase activity were restrained in Halomonas sp. strain GT, which resulted in low a decolorization rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


April 21, 2020  |  

Insight into the microbial world of Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex and its relationships with its host.

The 37 currently recognized Bemisia tabaci cryptic species are economically important species and contain both primary and secondary endosymbionts, but their diversity has never been mapped systematically across the group. To achieve this, PacBio sequencing of full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons was carried out on 21 globally collected species in the B. tabaci complex, and two samples from B. afer were used here as outgroups. The microbial diversity was first explored across the major lineages of the whole group and 15 new putative bacterial sequences were observed. Extensive comparison of our results with previous endosymbiont diversity surveys which used PCR or multiplex 454 pyrosequencing platforms showed that the bacterial diversity was underestimated. To validate these new putative bacteria, one of them (Halomonas) was first confirmed to be present in MED B. tabaci using Hiseq2500 and FISH technologies. These results confirmed PacBio is a reliable and informative venue to reveal the bacterial diversity of insects. In addition, many new secondary endosymbiotic strains of Rickettsia and Arsenophonus were found, increasing the known diversity in these groups. For the previously described primary endosymbionts, one Portiera Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) was shared by all B. tabaci species. The congruence of the B. tabaci-host and Portiera phylogenetic trees provides strong support for the hypothesis that primary endosymbionts co-speciated with their hosts. Likewise, a comparison of bacterial alpha diversities, Principal Coordinate Analysis, indistinct endosymbiotic communities harbored by different species and the co-divergence analyses suggest a lack of association between overall microbial diversity with cryptic species, further indicate that the secondary endosymbiont-mediated speciation is unlikely to have occurred in the B. tabaci species group.


April 21, 2020  |  

Comparative Genomic Analyses Reveal Core-Genome-Wide Genes Under Positive Selection and Major Regulatory Hubs in Outlier Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Genomic information for outlier strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exiguous when compared with classical strains. We sequenced and constructed the complete genome of an environmental strain CR1 of P. aeruginosa and performed the comparative genomic analysis. It clustered with the outlier group, hence we scaled up the analyses to understand the differences in environmental and clinical outlier strains. We identified eight new regions of genomic plasticity and a plasmid pCR1 with a VirB/D4 complex followed by trimeric auto-transporter that can induce virulence phenotype in the genome of strain CR1. Virulence genotype analysis revealed that strain CR1 lacked hemolytic phospholipase C and D, three genes for LPS biosynthesis and had reduced antibiotic resistance genes when compared with clinical strains. Genes belonging to proteases, bacterial exporters and DNA stabilization were found to be under strong positive selection, thus facilitating pathogenicity and survival of the outliers. The outliers had the complete operon for the production of vibrioferrin, a siderophore present in plant growth promoting bacteria. The competence to acquire multidrug resistance and new virulence factors makes these strains a potential threat. However, we identified major regulatory hubs that can be used as drug targets against both the classical and outlier groups.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of the halophilic PHA-producing bacterium Halomonas sp. SF2003: insights into its biotechnological potential.

A halophilic Gram-negative eubacterium was isolated from the Iroise Sea and identified as an efficient producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The strain, designated SF2003, was found to belong to the Halomonas genus on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Previous biochemical tests indicated that the Halomonas sp. strain SF2003 is capable of supporting various culture conditions which sometimes can be constraining for marine strains. This versatility could be of great interest for biotechnological applications. Therefore, a complete bacterial genome sequencing and de novo assembly were performed using a PacBio RSII sequencer and Hierarchical Genome Assembly Process software in order to predict Halomonas sp. SF2003 metabolisms, and to identify genes involved in PHA production and stress tolerance. This study demonstrates the complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. SF2003 which contains a circular 4,36 Mbp chromosome, and replaces the strain in a phylogenetic tree. Genes related to PHA metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and stress tolerance were identified and a comparison was made with metabolisms of relative species. Genes annotation highlighted the presence of typical genes involved in PHA biosynthesis such as phaA, phaB and phaC and enabled a preliminary analysis of their organization and characteristics. Several genes of carbohydrates and fatty acid metabolisms were also identified which provided helpful insights into both a better knowledge of the intricacies of PHA biosynthetic pathways and of production purposes. Results show the strong versatility of Halomonas sp. SF2003 to adapt to various temperatures and salinity which can subsequently be exploited for industrial applications such as PHA production.


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