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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Intercellular communication is required for trap formation in the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) are a large and diverse group of fungi, which may switch from a saprotrophic to a predatory lifestyle if nematodes are present. Different fungi have developed different trapping devices, ranging from adhesive cells to constricting rings. After trapping, fungal hyphae penetrate the worm, secrete lytic enzymes and form a hyphal network inside the body. We sequenced the genome of Duddingtonia flagrans, a biotechnologically important NTF used to control nematode populations in fields. The 36.64 Mb genome encodes 9,927 putative proteins, among which are more than 638 predicted secreted proteins. Most secreted proteins are lytic enzymes, but more…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Secretion of an Argonaute protein by a parasitic nematode and the evolution of its siRNA guides.

Extracellular RNA has been proposed to mediate communication between cells and organisms however relatively little is understood regarding how specific sequences are selected for export. Here, we describe a specific Argonaute protein (exWAGO) that is secreted in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri, at multiple copies per EV. Phylogenetic and gene expression analyses demonstrate exWAGO orthologues are highly conserved and abundantly expressed in related parasites but highly diverged in free-living genus Caenorhabditis. We show that the most abundant small RNAs released from the nematode parasite are not microRNAs as previously thought, but rather secondary small interfering…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Somatic proteome of Haemonchus contortus.

Currently, there is a dearth of proteomic data to underpin fundamental investigations of parasites and parasitism at the molecular level. Here, using a high throughput LC-MS/MS-based approach, we undertook the first reported comprehensive, large-scale proteomic investigation of the barber’s pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) – one of the most important parasitic nematodes of livestock animals worldwide. In total, 2487 unique H. contortus proteins representing different developmental stages/sexes (i.e. eggs, L3s and L4s, female (Af) and male (Am) adults) were identified and quantified with high confidence. Bioinformatic analyses of this proteome revealed substantial alterations in protein profiles during the life cycle, particularly…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of the New Zealand parasitic roundworm Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongyloidea: Haemonchidae) field strain NZ_Hco_NP

The complete mitochondrial genome of the New Zealand parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus field strain NZ_Hco_NP was sequenced and annotated. The 14,001bp-long mitogenome contains 12 protein-coding genes (atp8 gene missing), two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 583bp non- coding region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. contortus NZ_Hco_NP forms a monophyletic clus- ter with the remaining three Haemonchidae species, and further illustrates the high levels of diversity and gene flow among Trichostrongylidae.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Genome Sequence of the Anthelmintic-Susceptible New Zealand Haemonchus contortus.

Internal parasitic nematodes are a global animal health issue causing drastic losses in livestock. Here, we report a H. contortus representative draft genome to serve as a genetic resource to the scientific community and support future experimental research of molecular mechanisms in related parasites. A de novo hybrid assembly was generated from PCR-free whole genome sequence data, resulting in a chromosome-level assembly that is 465 Mb in size encoding 22,341 genes. The genome sequence presented here is consistent with the genome architecture of the existing Haemonchus species and is a valuable resource for future studies regarding population genetic structures of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Horizontal transfer of a retrotransposon between parasitic nematodes and the common shrew.

As the genomes of more metazoan species are sequenced, reports of horizontal transposon transfers (HTT) have increased. Our understanding of the mechanisms of such events is at an early stage. The close physical relationship between a parasite and its host could facilitate horizontal transfer. To date, two studies have identified horizontal transfer of RTEs, a class of retrotransposable elements, involving parasites: ticks might act as vector for BovB between ruminants and squamates, and AviRTE was transferred between birds and parasitic nematodes.We searched for RTEs shared between nematode and mammalian genomes. Given their physical proximity, it was necessary to detect and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The golden death bacillus Chryseobacterium nematophagum is a novel matrix digesting pathogen of nematodes.

Nematodes represent important pathogens of humans and farmed animals and cause significant health and economic impacts. The control of nematodes is primarily carried out by applying a limited number of anthelmintic compounds, for which there is now widespread resistance being reported. There is a current unmet need to develop novel control measures including the identification and characterisation of natural pathogens of nematodes.Nematode killing bacilli were isolated from a rotten fruit in association with wild free-living nematodes. These bacteria belong to the Chryseobacterium genus (golden bacteria) and represent a new species named Chryseobacterium nematophagum. These bacilli are oxidase-positive, flexirubin-pigmented, gram-negative rods…

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