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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Survival Mechanisms of Campylobacter hepaticus Identified by Genomic Analysis and Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of in vivo and in vitro Derived Bacteria.

Chickens infected with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli are largely asymptomatic, however, infection with the closely related species, Campylobacter hepaticus, can result in Spotty Liver Disease (SLD). C. hepaticus has been detected in the liver, bile, small intestine and caecum of SLD affected chickens. The survival and colonization mechanisms that C. hepaticus uses to colonize chickens remain unknown. In this study, we compared the genome sequences of 14 newly sequenced Australian isolates of C. hepaticus, isolates from outbreaks in the United Kingdom, and reference strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, with the aim of identifying virulence genes associated with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Adaptive Strategies in a Poly-Extreme Environment: Differentiation of Vegetative Cells in Serratia ureilytica and Resistance to Extreme Conditions.

Poly-extreme terrestrial habitats are often used as analogs to extra-terrestrial environments. Understanding the adaptive strategies allowing bacteria to thrive and survive under these conditions could help in our quest for extra-terrestrial planets suitable for life and understanding how life evolved in the harsh early earth conditions. A prime example of such a survival strategy is the modification of vegetative cells into resistant resting structures. These differentiated cells are often observed in response to harsh environmental conditions. The environmental strain (strain Lr5/4) belonging to Serratia ureilytica was isolated from a geothermal spring in Lirima, Atacama Desert, Chile. The Atacama Desert is…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative Genomic Analyses Reveal Core-Genome-Wide Genes Under Positive Selection and Major Regulatory Hubs in Outlier Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Genomic information for outlier strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exiguous when compared with classical strains. We sequenced and constructed the complete genome of an environmental strain CR1 of P. aeruginosa and performed the comparative genomic analysis. It clustered with the outlier group, hence we scaled up the analyses to understand the differences in environmental and clinical outlier strains. We identified eight new regions of genomic plasticity and a plasmid pCR1 with a VirB/D4 complex followed by trimeric auto-transporter that can induce virulence phenotype in the genome of strain CR1. Virulence genotype analysis revealed that strain CR1 lacked hemolytic phospholipase C…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome plasticity favours double chromosomal Tn4401b-blaKPC-2 transposon insertion in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 clone.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 235 is a clone that possesses an extraordinary ability to acquire mobile genetic elements and has been associated with the spread of resistance genes, including genes that encode for carbapenemases. Here, we aim to characterize the genetic platforms involved in resistance dissemination in blaKPC-2-positive P. aeruginosa ST235 in Colombia.In a prospective surveillance study of infections in adult patients attended in five ICUs in five distant cities in Colombia, 58 isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered, of which, 27 (46.6%) were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular analysis showed that 6 (22.2%) and 4 (14.8%) isolates harboured the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Resource Concentration Modulates the Fate of Dissimilated Nitrogen in a Dual-Pathway Actinobacterium.

Respiratory ammonification and denitrification are two evolutionarily unrelated dissimilatory nitrogen (N) processes central to the global N cycle, the activity of which is thought to be controlled by carbon (C) to nitrate (NO3-) ratio. Here we find that Intrasporangium calvum C5, a novel dual-pathway denitrifier/respiratory ammonifier, disproportionately utilizes ammonification rather than denitrification when grown under low C concentrations, even at low C:NO3- ratios. This finding is in conflict with the paradigm that high C:NO3- ratios promote ammonification and low C:NO3- ratios promote denitrification. We find that the protein atomic composition for denitrification modules (NirK) are significantly cost minimized for C…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comprehensive analysis of full genome sequence and Bd-milRNA/target mRNAs to discover the mechanism of hypovirulence in Botryosphaeria dothidea strains on pear infection with BdCV1 and BdPV1

Pear ring rot disease, mainly caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is widespread in most pear and apple-growing regions. Mycoviruses are used for biocontrol, especially in fruit tree disease. BdCV1 (Botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1) and BdPV1 (Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1) influence the biological characteristics of B. dothidea strains. BdCV1 is a potential candidate for the control of fungal disease. Therefore, it is vital to explore interactions between B. dothidea and mycovirus to clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of B. dothidea and hypovirulence of B. dothidea in pear. A high-quality full-length genome sequence of the B. dothidea LW-Hubei isolate was obtained using Single Molecule…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: Reference-quality drosophila genome assemblies for evolutionary analysis of previously inaccessible genomic regions

In this presentation, Andrew Clark from Cornell University describes work from a collaboration with Manyuan Long of the University of Chicago and Rod Wing of the University of Arizona to look at heterochromatic regions with long simple satellite repeats in drosophila genomes. The group used PacBio sequencing to create new genome assemblies of 10 drosophila species, including de novo assemblies of two individual flies using as little as 26 ng of gDNA.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Presentation: The Sequel II System – The next evolution of SMRT Sequencing

In this AGBT presentation, Marty Badgett shares a look at the latest results from circular consensus sequencing (CCS) mode for highly accurate reads and data from our soon-to-be-released Sequel II System. As he demonstrates, CCS reads cover the same molecule many times, delivering high consensus accuracy despite noisy raw reads; on average, reaching 10 passes achieves Q30 accuracy. Badgett offers several examples where this is useful, such as pharmacogenomic gene analysis and resolving metagenomic communities. He also provides an update on the Iso-Seq method, which can now segregate transcripts into haplotype-specific alleles using a new tool called Iso-Phase.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Presentation: HiFi long reads for comprehensive genomic analysis

In this AGBT presentation, Mike Hunkapiller shares insights on using highly accurate long (HiFi) reads generated in circular consensus sequencing (CCS) mode for comprehensive genomic analysis and provides examples such as the sequencing of a Genome in a Bottle reference sample, which concluded with Q48 accuracy, 18 Mb contigs, and clearly phased haplotypes.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: Best practices for working with PacBio tools (SMRT Link & developmental) on the command line

This webinar, presented by Roberto Lleras, provides the best practices for working with PacBio tools (SMRT Link and Developmental) on the command line. Please access this file for step-by-step instructions for installing SMRT Analysis tools and pbbioconda in order to analyze SMRT Sequencing data on the command line: https://www.pacb.com/wp-content/uploads/Bioinformatics-Webinar-Session-1-Getting-Started.pdf

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Conference: Functional genomics – gene annotation and methylome analysis in bacteria

In his AGBT talk, Matthew Blow from the Joint Genome Institute describes high-throughput pipelines to annotate gene function and explore methylation in microbes. He uses transposon sequencing to annotate thousands of genes in bacteria and archaea. Later, he presents a study using SMRT Sequencing to generate complete methylomes for 232 prokaryotes, showing that orphan methylases appear to have a regulatory role.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: Approaches taken, progress made, and enhanced utility of long read-based goat, swine, cattle and sheep reference genomes

Tim Smith, molecular geneticist at the USDA Agricutural Research Service (ARS) in Clay Center, Nebraska, and director of the U.S. Meat Animal Reseach Center Core Facilities, discusses the USDA’s efforts to improve the goat, swine, cattle, and sheep genomes through long read-based de novoassemblies scaffolded with a variety of approaches. Recent advances in long-read sequencing, combined with new technologies for scaffolding the resulting contigs, have made it possible to make a significant change in the quality of genome assemblies for a very small fraction of the price required to create the originals. Although a change of reference genomes incurs cost,…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG PacBio Workshop: De novo sequencing of the koala genome

Rebecca Johnson, director of the Australian Museum Research Institute presents finding from de novo sequencing of the koala genome. Using PacBio sequencing the Koala Genome Consortium obtained an assembly with an N50 of 11.5 Mbp and have undertaken functional genomic analysis highlighting the unique genes associated with lactation and immune function of koalas. Johnson goes on to describe efforts to obtain a chromosome level assembly and current work using ‘super scaffolding’ to compare shared synteny across diverse lineages to generate chromosome scaffold maps.

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Complete resequencing of extended genomic regions using fosmid target capture and single molecule real-time (SMRT) long read sequencing technology.

A longstanding goal of genomic analysis is the identification of causal genetic factors contributing to disease. While the common disease/common variant hypothesis has been tested in many genome-wide association studies, few advancements in identifying causal variation have been realized, and instead recent findings point away from common variants towards aggregate rare variants as causal. A challenge is obtaining complete phased genomic sequences over extended genomic regions from sufficient numbers of cases and controls to identify all potential variation causal of a disease. To address this, we modified methods for targeted DNA isolation using fosmid technology and single-molecule, long-sequence-read generaton that…

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