April 21, 2020  |  

Enrichment of oral microbiota in early cystic precursors to invasive pancreatic cancer.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cysts that can progress to invasive pancreatic cancer. Associations between oncogenesis and oral microbiome alterations have been reported. This study aims to investigate a potential intracystic pancreatic microbiome in a pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN) surgery patient cohort.Paired cyst fluid and plasma were collected at pancreatic surgery from patients with suspected PCN (n=105). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial DNA by qPCR, PacBio sequencing (n=35), and interleukin (IL)-1ß quantification was performed. The data were correlated to diagnosis, lesion severity and clinical and laboratory profile, including proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) usage and history of invasive endoscopy procedures.Intracystic bacterial 16S DNA copy number and IL-1ß protein quantity were significantly higher in IPMN with high-grade dysplasia and IPMN with cancer compared with non-IPMN PCNs. Despite high interpersonal variation of intracystic microbiota composition, bacterial network and linear discriminant analysis effect size analyses demonstrated co-occurrence and enrichment of oral bacterial taxa including Fusobacterium nucleatum and Granulicatella adiacens in cyst fluid from IPMN with high-grade dysplasia. The elevated intracystic bacterial DNA is associated with, but not limited to, prior exposure to invasive endoscopic procedures, and is independent from use of PPI and antibiotics.Collectively, these findings warrant further investigation into the role of oral bacteria in cystic precursors to pancreatic cancer and have added values on the aetiopathology as well as the management of pancreatic cysts. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequences of Two Isolates of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme, Obtained from Blood from Patients with Lemierre’s Syndrome.

Two isolates (F1260 and F1291) of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme were recovered from blood from patients with Lemierre’s syndrome. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of these two isolates. The genomes of F1260 and F1291 comprise one chromosome with lengths of 2.29 and 2.14?Mb, respectively.


April 21, 2020  |  

Streptococcus periodonticum sp. nov., Isolated from Human Subgingival Dental Plaque of Periodontitis Lesion.

A novel facultative anaerobic and Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated strain ChDC F135T, was isolated from human subgingival dental plaque of periodontitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence of strain ChDC F135T was closest to that of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T (98.2%), followed by Streptococcus intermedia SK54T (97.0%), Streptococcus constellatus NCTC11325T (96.0%), and Streptococcus anginosus NCTC 10713T (95.7%). In contrast, phylogenetic analysis based on the superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) and the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) showed that the nucleotide sequence similarities of strain ChDC F135T were highly similar to the corresponding genes of S. anginosus NCTC 10713T (99.2% and 97.6%, respectively), S. constellatus NCTC11325T (87.8% and 91.4%, respectively), and S. intermedia SK54T (85.8% and 91.2%, respectively) rather than those of S. sinensis HKU4T (80.5% and 82.6%). The complete genome of strain ChDC F135T consisted of 1,901,251 bp and the G+C content was 38.9 mol %. Average nucleotide identity value between strain ChDC F135T and S. sinensis HKU4T or S. anginosus NCTC 10713T were 75.7% and 95.6%, respectively. The C14:0 composition of the cellular fatty acids of strain ChDC F135T (32.8%) was different from that of S. intermedia (6-8%), S. constellatus (6-13%), and S. anginosus (13-20%). Based on the results of phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis, strain ChDC F135T (=?KCOM 2412T?=?JCM 33300T) was classified as a type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which we proposed the name Streptococcus periodonticum sp. nov.


April 21, 2020  |  

Streptococcus gwangjuense sp. nov., Isolated from Human Pericoronitis.

A novel facultative anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccus, designated strain ChDC B345T, was isolated from human pericoronitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Streptococcus. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain ChDC B345T was most closely related to those of  Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T (99.5%) and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T (99.5%). Complete genome of strain ChDC B345T was 1,972,471 bp in length and the G?+?C content was 40.2 mol%. Average nucleotide identity values between strain ChDC B345T and S. pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T or S. mitis NCTC 12261T were 92.17% and 93.63%, respectively. Genome-to-genome distance values between strain ChDC B345T and S. pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T or S. mitis NCTC 12261T were 47.8% (45.2-50.4%) and 53.0% (51.0-56.4%), respectively. Based on these results, strain ChDC B345T (=?KCOM 1679T?=?JCM 33299T) should be classified as a novel species of genus Streptococcus, for which we propose the name Streptococcus gwangjuense sp. nov.


April 21, 2020  |  

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible unculturable bacteria from a healthy Japanese individual by using commercially available media. A 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene metagenomic analysis revealed that each culture medium showed bacterial growth depending on its selective features and a possibility of the presence of novel bacterial species. Whole genome sequencing of these candidate strains suggested the isolation of 8 novel bacterial species classified in the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Our approach indicates that a number of intestinal bacteria hitherto considered unculturable are potentially culturable and can be cultured on commercially available media. We have obtained novel gut bacteria from a healthy Japanese individual using a combination of comprehensive genomics and conventional culturing methods. We would expect that the discovery of such novel bacteria could illuminate pivotal roles for the gut microbiota in association with human health.


July 7, 2019  |  

Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3(T), M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3(T), M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3(T) was iso-C15?:?0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99?% similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922(T) (87.3?% similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437(T) (87.4?%). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3(T), M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2553(T)?=?DSM 27344(T)). © 2015 IUMS.


July 7, 2019  |  

Finished bacterial genomes from shotgun sequence data.

Exceptionally accurate genome reference sequences have proven to be of great value to microbial researchers. Thus, to date, about 1800 bacterial genome assemblies have been “finished” at great expense with the aid of manual laboratory and computational processes that typically iterate over a period of months or even years. By applying a new laboratory design and new assembly algorithm to 16 samples, we demonstrate that assemblies exceeding finished quality can be obtained from whole-genome shotgun data and automated computation. Cost and time requirements are thus dramatically reduced.


July 7, 2019  |  

Detection, isolation and characterization of Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. colonizing the stomach of pigs.

Nine strains of a novel Fusobacterium sp. were isolated from the stomach of 6-8 months old and adult pigs. The isolates were obligately anaerobic, although they endured 2h exposure to air. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B genes demonstrated that the isolates showed high sequence similarity with Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium ulcerans, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium russii and Fusobacterium necrogenes, but formed a distinct lineage in the genus Fusobacterium. Comparative analysis of the genome of the type strain of this novel Fusobacterium sp. confirmed that it is different from other recognized Fusobacterium spp. DNA-DNA hybridization, fingerprinting and genomic %GC determination further supported the conclusion that the isolates belong to a new, distinct species. The isolates were also distinguishable from these and other Fusobacterium spp. by phenotypical characterization. The strains produced indole and exhibited proline arylamidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. They did not hydrolyse esculin, did not exhibit pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, valine arylamidase, a-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase-6-phosphate or a-glucosidase activity nor produced acid from cellobiose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, saccharose, salicin or trehalose. The major fatty acids were C16:0 and C18:1?9c. The name Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates with the type strain CDW1(T) (=DSM 101753(T)=LMG 29236(T)). We also demonstrated that Clostridium rectum and mortiferum Fusobacterium represent the same species, with nomenclatural priority for the latter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Restriction-modification mediated barriers to exogenous DNA uptake and incorporation employed by Prevotella intermedia.

Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontal pathogen, is increasingly implicated in human respiratory tract and cystic fibrosis lung infections. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms employed by this pathogen remain only partially characterized and poorly understood, largely due to its total lack of genetic accessibility. Here, using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) genome and methylome sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, in addition to cloning and restriction analysis, we define the specific genetic barriers to exogenous DNA present in two of the most widespread laboratory strains, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. intermedia Strain 17. We identified and characterized multiple restriction-modification (R-M) systems, some of which are considerably divergent between the two strains. We propose that these R-M systems are the root cause of the P. intermedia transformation barrier. Additionally, we note the presence of conserved Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) systems in both strains, which could provide a further barrier to exogenous DNA uptake and incorporation. This work will provide a valuable resource during the development of a genetic system for P. intermedia, which will be required for fundamental investigation of this organism’s physiology, metabolism, and pathogenesis in human disease.


July 7, 2019  |  

New insights into the diversity of the genus Faecalibacterium.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal bacterium, ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. This species is a functionally important member of the microbiota and studies suggest it has an impact on the physiology and health of the host. F. prausnitzii is the only identified species in the genus Faecalibacterium, but a recent study clustered strains of this species in two different phylogroups. Here, we propose the existence of distinct species in this genus through the use of comparative genomics. Briefly, we performed analyses of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, phylogenomics, whole genome Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (wgMLST), Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), gene synteny, and pangenome to better elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains of Faecalibacterium. For this, we used 12 newly sequenced, assembled, and curated genomes of F. prausnitzii, which were isolated from feces of healthy volunteers from France and Australia, and combined these with published data from 5 strains downloaded from public databases. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences, together with the wgMLST profiles and a phylogenomic tree based on comparisons of genome similarity, all supported the clustering of Faecalibacterium strains in different genospecies. Additionally, the global analysis of gene synteny among all strains showed a highly fragmented profile, whereas the intra-cluster analyses revealed larger and more conserved collinear blocks. Finally, ANI analysis substantiated the presence of three distinct clusters-A, B, and C-composed of five, four, and four strains, respectively. The pangenome analysis of each cluster corroborated the classification of these clusters into three distinct species, each containing less variability than that found within the global pangenome of all strains. Here, we propose that comparison of pangenome subsets and their associated a values may be used as an alternative approach, together with ANI, in the in silico classification of new species. Altogether, our results provide evidence not only for the reconsideration of the phylogenetic and genomic relatedness among strains currently assigned to F. prausnitzii, but also the need for lineage (strain-based) differentiation of this taxon to better define how specific members might be associated with positive or negative host interactions.


July 7, 2019  |  

Characterization of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 isolated from a patient with ulcerative colitis based on complete genome sequence and transcriptome analysis.

Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb) isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F. varium subsp. similar to F. ulcerans because of partial shared orthologs. Compared with the genome sequences of F. varium ATCC 27725 (genome size, 3.30 Mb) and other strains of Fusobacterium spp., Fv113-g1 possesses many accessary pan-genome sequences with noteworthy multiple virulence factors, including 44 autotransporters (type V secretion system, T5SS) and 13 Fusobacterium adhesion (FadA) paralogs involved in potential mucosal inflammation. Indeed, transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Fv113-g1-specific accessary genes, such as multiple T5SS and fadA paralogs, showed notably increased expression with D-MEM cultivation than with brain heart infusion broth. This implied that growth condition may enhance the expression of such potential virulence factors, leading to remarkable survival against other gut microorganisms and to the pathogenicity to human intestinal epithelium.


July 7, 2019  |  

Transcriptional profiling the 150 kb linear megaplasmid of Borrelia turicatae suggests a role in vector colonization and initiating mammalian infection.

Adaptation is key for survival as vector-borne pathogens transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature change is an environmental signal inducing alterations in gene expression of tick-borne spirochetes. While plasmids are often associated with adaptation, complex genomes of relapsing fever spirochetes have hindered progress in understanding the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. We utilized recent advances in genome sequencing to generate the most complete version of the Borrelia turicatae 150 kb linear megaplasmid (lp150). Additionally, a transcriptional analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) in lp150 was conducted and identified regions that were up-regulated during in vitro cultivation at tick-like growth temperatures (22°C), relative to bacteria grown at 35°C and infected murine blood. Evaluation of the 3′ end of lp150 identified a cluster of ORFs that code for putative surface lipoproteins. With a microbe’s surface proteome serving important roles in pathogenesis, we confirmed the ORFs expression in vitro and in the tick compared to spirochetes infecting murine blood. Transcriptional evaluation of lp150 indicates the plasmid likely has essential roles in vector colonization and/or initiating mammalian infection. These results also provide a much needed transcriptional framework to delineate the molecular mechanisms utilized by relapsing fever spirochetes during their enzootic cycle.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence and comparative pathogenic determinants of multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli O25b: H4, A clinical isolate from Saudi Arabia

Escherichia coli serotype O25b:H4 is involved in human urinary tract infections.In this study, we sequenced and analyzed E. coli O25b:H4 isolated from a patient sufferingfrom recurring UTI infections in an intensive care unit at Hera General Hospital inMakkah, Saudi Arabia. We aimed to determine the virulence genes for pathogenesis anddrug resistance of this isolate compared to other E. coli strains. We sequenced and analyzedthe E. coli O25b:H4 Saudi strain clinical isolate using next generation sequencing. Usingthe ERGO genome analysis platform, we performed annotations and identified virulenceand antibiotic resistance determinants of this clinical isolate. The E. coli O25b:H4 genomewas assembled into four contigs representing a total chromosome size of 5.28 Mb, andthree contigs were identified, including a 130.9 kb (virulence plasmid) contig bearing thebla-CTX gene and 32 kb and 29 kb contigs. In comparing this genome to otheruropathogenic E. coli genomes, we identified unique drug resistance and pathogenicityfactors. In this work, whole-genome sequencing and targeted comparative analysis of aclinical isolate of uropathogenic Escherichia coli O25b:H4 was performed. This strainencodes virulence genes linked with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that areexpressed constitutively in E. coli ST131. We identified the genes responsible forpathogenesis and drug resistance and performed comparative analyses of the virulenceand antibiotic resistance determinants with those of other E. coli UPEC isolates. This isthe first report of genome sequencing and analysis of a UPEC strain from Saudi Arabia.


July 7, 2019  |  

Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium vincentii KCOM 2931 isolated from a human periodontitis lesion

Recently, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii was reclassified as Fusobacterium vincentii based on the average nucleotide identity and genome-to-genome distance analyses. F. vincentii is a Gram-negative, anaerobic, and filament-shaped bacterium. F. vincentii is a member of normal flora of human oral cavity and plays a role in periodontal diseases. F. vincentii KCOM 2931 was isolated from a periodontitis lesion. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of F. vincentii KCOM 2931.


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