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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification of Initial Colonizing Bacteria in Dental Plaques from Young Adults Using Full-Length 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

Development of dental plaque begins with the adhesion of salivary bacteria to the acquired pellicle covering the tooth surface. In this study, we collected in vivo dental plaque formed on hydroxyapatite disks for 6 h from 74 young adults and identified initial colonizing taxa based on full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. A long-read, single-molecule sequencer, PacBio Sequel, provided 100,109 high-quality full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence reads from the early plaque microbiota, which were assigned to 90 oral bacterial taxa. The microbiota obtained from every individual mostly comprised the 21 predominant taxa with the maximum relative abundance of over 10% (95.8?±?6.2%,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length 16S rRNA gene classification of Atlantic salmon bacteria and effects of using different 16S variable regions on community structure analysis.

Understanding fish-microbial relationships may be of great value for fish producers as fish growth, development and welfare are influenced by the microbial community associated with the rearing systems and fish surfaces. Accurate methods to generate and analyze these microbial communities would be an important tool to help improve understanding of microbial effects in the industry. In this study, we performed taxonomic classification and determination of operational taxonomic units on Atlantic salmon microbiota by taking advantage of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Skin mucus was dominated by the genera Flavobacterium and Psychrobacter. Intestinal samples were dominated by the genera Carnobacterium, Aeromonas,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution.

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New long-read sequencing technologies can sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene, but higher error rates have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial communities of known composition, our method recovered the full complement of full-length 16S sequence variants from expected community members…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reconstruction of the genomes of drug-resistant pathogens for outbreak investigation through metagenomic sequencing

Culture-independent methods that target genome fragments have shown promise in identifying certain pathogens, but the holy grail of comprehensive pathogen genome detection from microbiologically complex samples for subsequent forensic analyses remains a challenge. In the context of an investigation of a nosocomial outbreak, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing of a human fecal sample and a neural network algorithm based on tetranucleotide frequency profiling to reconstruct microbial genomes and tested the same approach using rectal swabs from a second patient. The approach rapidly and readily detected the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae in the patient fecal specimen and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Polysaccharide utilization loci of North Sea Flavobacteriia as basis for using SusC/D-protein expression for predicting major phytoplankton glycans.

Marine algae convert a substantial fraction of fixed carbon dioxide into various polysaccharides. Flavobacteriia that are specialized on algal polysaccharide degradation feature genomic clusters termed polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). As knowledge on extant PUL diversity is sparse, we sequenced the genomes of 53 North Sea Flavobacteriia and obtained 400 PULs. Bioinformatic PUL annotations suggest usage of a large array of polysaccharides, including laminarin, a-glucans, and alginate as well as mannose-, fucose-, and xylose-rich substrates. Many of the PULs exhibit new genetic architectures and suggest substrates rarely described for marine environments. The isolates’ PUL repertoires often differed considerably within genera, corroborating…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Investigating the bacterial microbiota of traditional fermented dairy products using propidium monoazide with single-molecule real-time sequencing.

Traditional fermented dairy foods have been the major components of the Mongolian diet for millennia. In this study, we used propidium monoazide (PMA; binds to DNA of nonviable cells so that only viable cells are enumerated) and single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) technology to investigate the total and viable bacterial compositions of 19 traditional fermented dairy foods, including koumiss from Inner Mongolia (KIM), koumiss from Mongolia (KM), and fermented cow milk from Mongolia (CM); sample groups treated with PMA were designated PKIM, PKM, and PCM. Full-length 16S rRNA sequencing identified 195 bacterial species in 121 genera and 13 phyla in PMA-treated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Confident phylogenetic identification of uncultured prokaryotes through long read amplicon sequencing of the 16S-ITS-23S rRNA operon.

Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is the predominant method to quantify microbial compositions and to discover novel lineages. However, traditional short amplicons often do not contain enough information to confidently resolve their phylogeny. Here we present a cost-effective protocol that amplifies a large part of the rRNA operon and sequences the amplicons with PacBio technology. We tested our method on a mock community and developed a read-curation pipeline that reduces the overall read error rate to 0.18%. Applying our method on four environmental samples, we captured near full-length rRNA operon amplicons from a large diversity of prokaryotes. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Assessment of the microbial diversity of Chinese Tianshan tibicos by single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

Chinese Tianshan tibico grains were collected from the rural area of Tianshan in Xinjiang province, China. Typical tibico grains are known to consist of polysaccharide matrix that embeds a variety of bacteria and yeasts. These grains are widely used in some rural regions to produce a beneficial sugary beverage that is slightly acidic and contains low level of alcohol. This work aimed to characterize the microbiota composition of Chinese Tianshan tibicos using the single molecule, real-time sequencing technology, which is advantageous in generating long reads. Our results revealed that the microbiota mainly comprised of the bacterial species of Lactobacillus hilgardii,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

PacBio sequencing reveals bacterial community diversity in cheeses collected from different regions.

Cheese is a fermented dairy product that is popular for its unique flavor and nutritional value. Recent studies have shown that microorganisms in cheese play an important role in the fermentation process and determine the quality of the cheese. We collected 12 cheese samples from different regions and studied the composition of their bacterial communities using PacBio small-molecule real-time sequencing (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA). Our data revealed 144 bacterial genera (including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Staphylococcus) and 217 bacterial species (including Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Staphylococcus equorum, and Streptococcus uberis). We investigated the flavor quality of the cheese samples…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete genome sequence of Ethanoligenens harbinense reveals the metabolic pathway of acetate-ethanol fermentation: A novel understanding of the principles of anaerobic biotechnology.

Ethanol-type fermentation is one of three main fermentation types in the acidogenesis of anaerobic treatment systems. Non-spore-forming Ethanoligenens is as a typical genus capable of ethanol-type fermentation in mixed culture (i.e. acetate-ethanol fermentation). This genus can produce ethanol, acetate, CO2, and H2 using carbohydrates, and has application potential in anaerobic bioprocesses. Here, the complete genome sequences and methylome of Ethanoligenens harbinense strains with different autoaggregative and coaggregative abilities were obtained using the PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing platform. The genome size of E. harbinense strains was about 2.97-3.10?Mb with 55.5% G+C content. 3020-3153 genes were annotated, most of which were methylated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Modulation of metabolome and bacterial community in whole crop corn silage by inoculating homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri.

The present study investigated the species level based microbial community and metabolome in corn silage inoculated with or without homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri using the PacBio SMRT Sequencing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). Chopped whole crop corn was treated with (1) deionized water (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum, or (3) Lactobacillus buchneri. The chopped whole crop corn was ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags containing 300 g of fresh forge for 90 days, with three replicates for each treatment. The results showed that a total of 979 substances were detected, and 316 different metabolites were identified. Some metabolites with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Not-so-Sterile Womb: Evidence That the Human Fetus Is Exposed to Bacteria Prior to Birth.

The human microbiome includes trillions of bacteria, many of which play a vital role in host physiology. Numerous studies have now detected bacterial DNA in first-pass meconium and amniotic fluid samples, suggesting that the human microbiome may commence in utero. However, these data have remained contentious due to underlying contamination issues. Here, we have used a previously described method for reducing contamination in microbiome workflows to determine if there is a fetal bacterial microbiome beyond the level of background contamination. We recruited 50 women undergoing non-emergency cesarean section deliveries with no evidence of intra-uterine infection and collected first-pass meconium and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

CAMISIM: simulating metagenomes and microbial communities.

Shotgun metagenome data sets of microbial communities are highly diverse, not only due to the natural variation of the underlying biological systems, but also due to differences in laboratory protocols, replicate numbers, and sequencing technologies. Accordingly, to effectively assess the performance of metagenomic analysis software, a wide range of benchmark data sets are required.We describe the CAMISIM microbial community and metagenome simulator. The software can model different microbial abundance profiles, multi-sample time series, and differential abundance studies, includes real and simulated strain-level diversity, and generates second- and third-generation sequencing data from taxonomic profiles or de novo. Gold standards are created…

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