April 21, 2020  |  

Allopseudarcicella aquatilis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and red-pigmented strain, HME7025T, was isolated from freshwater sampled in the Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain HME7025T formed a lineage within the family Cytophagaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain HME7025T was closely related to the genera Pseudarcicella, Arcicella and Flectobacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of strain HME7025T were under 94.5?% to its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The major fatty acids of strain HME7025T were iso-C15?:?0 (41.9?%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c; 12.2?%) and anteiso-C15?:?0 (10.8?%). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids and one unidentified polar lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain HME7025T was 37.9?mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain HME7025T represents a novel species of a novel genus within the family Cytophagaceae, for which the name Allopseudarcicella aquatilis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HME7025T (=KCTC 23617T=CECT 7957T).


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 isolated from the Arctic seawater of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

The genus Pseudomonas is highly metabolically diverse and has colonized a wide range of ecological niches. The strain Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 was isolated from Arctic seawater (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) using dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as the sole carbon source. To better understand its role in the Arctic coastal ecosystem, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain DMSP-1 was completely sequenced. The genome contained a circular chromosome of 6,282,445?bp with an average GC content of 60.01?mol%. A total of 5510 protein coding genes, 70 tRNA genes and 19 rRNA genes were obtained. However, no genes encoding known enzymes associated with DMSP catabolism were identified in the genome, suggesting that novel DMSP degradation genes might exist in Pseudomonas sp. strain DMSP-1.


April 21, 2020  |  

Morphological and genomic characterisation of the hybrid schistosome infecting humans in Europe reveals a complex admixture between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis parasites

Schistosomes cause schistosomiasis, the worldtextquoterights second most important parasitic disease after malaria. A peculiar feature of schistosomes is their ability to produce viable and fertile hybrids. Originally only present in the tropics, schistosomiasis is now also endemic in Europe. Based on two genetic markers the European species had been identified as a hybrid between the ruminant-infective Schistosoma bovis and the human-infective Schistosoma haematobium.Here we describe for the first time the genomic composition of the European schistosome hybrid (77% of S. haematobium and 23% of S. bovis origins), its morphometric parameters and its compatibility with the European vector snail and intermediate host Compatibility is a key parameter for the parasites life cycle progression. We also show that egg morphology (a classical diagnostic parameter) does not allow for differential diagnosis while genetic tests do so. Additionally, we performed genome assembly improvement and annotation of S. bovis, the parental species for which no satisfactory genome assembly was available.For the first time since the discovery of hybrid schistosomes, these results reveal at the whole genomic level a complex admixture of parental genomes highlighting (i) the high permeability of schistosomes to other speciestextquoteright alleles, and (ii) the importance of hybrid formation for pushing species boundaries not only conceptionally but also geographically.


April 21, 2020  |  

Draft genome assembly and transcriptome sequencing of the golden algae Hydrurus foetidus (Chrysophyceae)

Hydrurusfoetidus is a freshwater alga belonging to the phylum Heterokonta. It thrives in cold rivers in polar and high alpine regions. It has several morphological traits reminiscent of single-celled eukaryotes, but can also form macroscopic thalli. Despite its ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, its life under cold conditions and its variable morphology, very little is known about its genome and transcriptome. Here, we present an extensive set of next-generation sequencing data, including genomic short reads from Illumina sequencing and long reads from Nanopore sequencing, as well as full length cDNAs from PacBio IsoSeq sequencing and a small RNA dataset (smaller than 200 bp) sequenced with Illumina. We combined this data with, to our knowledge, the first draft genome assembly of a chrysophyte algae. The assembly consists of 5069 contigs to a total assembly size of 171 Mb and a 77% BUSCO completeness. The new data generated here may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution and ecological roles of chrysophyte algae, as well as to resolve the branching patterns within the Heterokonta.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain FL2, a Trichloroethene-Respiring Anaerobe Isolated from Pristine Freshwater Sediment.

Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain FL2 couples growth to hydrogen oxidation and reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene and cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethenes. Strain FL2 has a 1.42-Mb genome with a G+C content of 47.0% and carries 1,465 protein-coding sequences, including 24 reductive dehalogenase genes.Copyright © 2019 Yan et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain SGAir0397, Isolated from a Tropical Air Sample Collected in Singapore.

Enterococcus faecalis strain SGAir0397 was isolated from a tropical air sample collected in Singapore. Its genome was assembled using single-molecule real-time sequencing data and comprises one circular chromosome with a length of 2.69 Mbp. The genome contains 2,595 protein-coding genes, 59 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs.Copyright © 2019 Purbojati et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1, a Sulfonate-Respiring Anaerobe.

We report the complete genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfonate-respiring, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1. The genome was assembled into a single 3.25-Mb circular chromosome with 2,680 protein-coding genes identified. Sequencing of sulfonate-metabolizing anaerobes is key for understanding sulfonate degradation and its role in the sulfur cycle.Copyright © 2019 Day et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Light Modulates the Physiology of Nonphototrophic Actinobacteria.

Light is a source of energy and an environmental cue that is available in excess in most surface environments. In prokaryotic systems, conversion of light to energy by photoautotrophs and photoheterotrophs is well understood, but the conversion of light to information and the cellular response to that information have been characterized in only a few species. Our goal was to explore the response of freshwater Actinobacteria, which are ubiquitous in illuminated aquatic environments, to light. We found that Actinobacteria without functional photosystems grow faster in the light, likely because sugar transport and metabolism are upregulated in the light. Based on the action spectrum of the growth effect and comparisons of the genomes of three Actinobacteria with this growth rate phenotype, we propose that the photosensor in these strains is a putative CryB-type cryptochrome. The ability to sense light and upregulate carbohydrate transport during the day could allow these cells to coordinate their time of maximum organic carbon uptake with the time of maximum organic carbon release by primary producers.IMPORTANCE Sunlight provides information about both place and time. In sunlit aquatic environments, primary producers release organic carbon and nitrogen along with other growth factors during the day. The ability of Actinobacteria to coordinate organic carbon uptake and utilization with production of photosynthate enables them to grow more efficiently in the daytime, and it potentially gives them a competitive advantage over heterotrophs that constitutively produce carbohydrate transporters, which is energetically costly, or produce transporters only after detection of the substrate(s), which delays their response. Understanding how light cues the transport of organic carbon and its conversion to biomass is key to understanding biochemical mechanisms within the carbon cycle, the fluxes through it, and the variety of mechanisms by which light enhances growth.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


April 21, 2020  |  

Remedial Treatment of Corroded Iron Objects by Environmental Aeromonas Isolates.

Using bacteria to transform reactive corrosion products into stable compounds represents an alternative to traditional methods employed in iron conservation. Two environmental Aeromonas strains (CA23 and CU5) were used to transform ferric iron corrosion products (goethite and lepidocrocite) into stable ferrous iron-bearing minerals (vivianite and siderite). A genomic and transcriptomic approach was used to analyze the metabolic traits of these strains and to evaluate their pathogenic potential. Although genes involved in solid-phase iron reduction were identified, key genes present in other environmental iron-reducing species are missing from the genome of CU5. Several pathogenicity factors were identified in the genomes of both strains, but none of these was expressed under iron reduction conditions. Additional in vivo tests showed hemolytic and cytotoxic activities for strain CA23 but not for strain CU5. Both strains were easily inactivated using ethanol and heat. Nonetheless, given a lesser potential for a pathogenic lifestyle, CU5 is the most promising candidate for the development of a bio-based iron conservation method stabilizing iron corrosion. Based on all the results, a prototype treatment was established using archaeological items. On those, the conversion of reactive corrosion products and the formation of a homogenous layer of biogenic iron minerals were achieved. This study shows how naturally occurring microorganisms and their metabolic capabilities can be used to develop bio-inspired solutions to the problem of metal corrosion.IMPORTANCE Microbiology can greatly help in the quest for a sustainable solution to the problem of iron corrosion, which causes important economic losses in a wide range of fields, including the protection of cultural heritage and building materials. Using bacteria to transform reactive and unstable corrosion products into more-stable compounds represents a promising approach. The overall aim of this study was to develop a method for the conservation and restoration of corroded iron items, starting from the isolation of iron-reducing bacteria from natural environments. This resulted in the identification of a suitable candidate (Aeromonas sp. strain CU5) that mediates the formation of desirable minerals at the surfaces of the objects. This led to the proof of concept of an application method on real objects.Copyright © 2019 Kooli et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole-genome sequence of the oriental lung fluke Paragonimus westermani.

Foodborne infections caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus are a significant and widespread public health problem in tropical areas. Approximately 50 Paragonimus species have been reported to infect animals and humans, but Paragonimus westermani is responsible for the bulk of human disease. Despite their medical and economic importance, no genome sequence for any Paragonimus species is available.We sequenced and assembled the genome of P. westermani, which is among the largest of the known pathogen genomes with an estimated size of 1.1 Gb. A 922.8 Mb genome assembly was generated from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequence data, covering 84% of the estimated genome size. The genome has a high proportion (45%) of repeat-derived DNA, particularly of the long interspersed element and long terminal repeat subtypes, and the expansion of these elements may explain some of the large size. We predicted 12,852 protein coding genes, showing a high level of conservation with related trematode species. The majority of proteins (80%) had homologs in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, with an average sequence identity of 64.1%. Assembly of the P. westermani mitochondrial genome from long PacBio reads resulted in a single high-quality circularized 20.6 kb contig. The contig harbored a 6.9 kb region of non-coding repetitive DNA comprised of three distinct repeat units. Our results suggest that the region is highly polymorphic in P. westermani, possibly even within single worm isolates.The generated assembly represents the first Paragonimus genome sequence and will facilitate future molecular studies of this important, but neglected, parasite group.


April 21, 2020  |  

Aquella oligotrophica gen. nov. sp. nov.: A new member of the family Neisseriaceae isolated from laboratory tap water.

A bacterial strain designated as P08T was isolated from laboratory tap water during a water quality assessment in University of Malaya, Malaysia. The strain was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and aerobic bacterium. Complete genome of P08T comprised of a 2,820,660 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 36.43%. Both 16S rRNA phylogeny and phylogenetic tree inferred from the core gene matrix demonstrated that P08T formed a hitherto unknown subline within the family Neisseriaceae. Ortho average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) values and the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) calculated from complete genome sequence indicated low relatedness between P08T and its phylogenetic neighbors. Respiratory quinone analysis revealed Q-8 as the only detectable quinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C14:0 , iso-C15:0 , and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c). The polar lipids consisted of uncharacterized aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. All aspects of phenotypic and phylogenetic data suggested that strain P08T represents a novel genus within family Neisseriaceae, for which the name Aquella gen. nov. is proposed. The type species of the genus is Aquella oligotrophica sp. nov., and the type strain is P08T (=LMG 29629T =DSM 100970T ). © 2019 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Hidden genomic evolution in a morphospecies-The landscape of rapidly evolving genes in Tetrahymena.

A morphospecies is defined as a taxonomic species based wholly on morphology, but often morphospecies consist of clusters of cryptic species that can be identified genetically or molecularly. The nature of the evolutionary novelty that accompanies speciation in a morphospecies is an intriguing question. Morphospecies are particularly common among ciliates, a group of unicellular eukaryotes that separates 2 kinds of nuclei-the silenced germline nucleus (micronucleus [MIC]) and the actively expressed somatic nucleus (macronucleus [MAC])-within a common cytoplasm. Because of their very similar morphologies, members of the Tetrahymena genus are considered a morphospecies. We explored the hidden genomic evolution within this genus by performing a comprehensive comparative analysis of the somatic genomes of 10 species and the germline genomes of 2 species of Tetrahymena. These species show high genetic divergence; phylogenomic analysis suggests that the genus originated about 300 million years ago (Mya). Seven universal protein domains are preferentially included among the species-specific (i.e., the youngest) Tetrahymena genes. In particular, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes make the largest contribution to the high level of genome divergence of the 10 species. LRR genes can be sorted into 3 different age groups. Parallel evolutionary trajectories have independently occurred among LRR genes in the different Tetrahymena species. Thousands of young LRR genes contain tandem arrays of exactly 90-bp exons. The introns separating these exons show a unique, extreme phase 2 bias, suggesting a clonal origin and successive expansions of 90-bp-exon LRR genes. Identifying LRR gene age groups allowed us to document a Tetrahymena intron length cycle. The youngest 90-bp exon LRR genes in T. thermophila are concentrated in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions of the 5 micronuclear chromosomes, suggesting that these regions act as genome innovation centers. Copies of a Tetrahymena Long interspersed element (LINE)-like retrotransposon are very frequently found physically adjacent to 90-bp exon/intron repeat units of the youngest LRR genes. We propose that Tetrahymena species have used a massive exon-shuffling mechanism, involving unequal crossing over possibly in concert with retrotransposition, to create the unique 90-bp exon array LRR genes.


April 21, 2020  |  

Chromulinavorax destructans, a pathogen of microzooplankton that provides a window into the enigmatic candidate phylum Dependentiae.

Members of the major candidate phylum Dependentiae (a.k.a. TM6) are widespread across diverse environments from showerheads to peat bogs; yet, with the exception of two isolates infecting amoebae, they are only known from metagenomic data. The limited knowledge of their biology indicates that they have a long evolutionary history of parasitism. Here, we present Chromulinavorax destructans (Strain SeV1) the first isolate of this phylum to infect a representative from a widespread and ecologically significant group of heterotrophic flagellates, the microzooplankter Spumella elongata (Strain CCAP 955/1). Chromulinavorax destructans has a reduced 1.2 Mb genome that is so specialized for infection that it shows no evidence of complete metabolic pathways, but encodes an extensive transporter system for importing nutrients and energy in the form of ATP from the host. Its replication causes extensive reorganization and expansion of the mitochondrion, effectively surrounding the pathogen, consistent with its dependency on the host for energy. Nearly half (44%) of the inferred proteins contain signal sequences for secretion, including many without recognizable similarity to proteins of known function, as well as 98 copies of proteins with an ankyrin-repeat domain; ankyrin-repeats are known effectors of host modulation, suggesting the presence of an extensive host-manipulation apparatus. These observations help to cement members of this phylum as widespread and diverse parasites infecting a broad range of eukaryotic microbes.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic characterization of Nocardia seriolae strains isolated from diseased fish.

Members of the genus Nocardia are widespread in diverse environments; a wide range of Nocardia species are known to cause nocardiosis in several animals, including cat, dog, fish, and humans. Of the pathogenic Nocardia species, N. seriolae is known to cause disease in cultured fish, resulting in major economic loss. We isolated two N. seriolae strains, CK-14008 and EM15050, from diseased fish and sequenced their genomes using the PacBio sequencing platform. To identify their genomic features, we compared their genomes with those of other Nocardia species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that N. seriolae shares a common ancestor with a putative human pathogenic Nocardia species. Moreover, N. seriolae strains were phylogenetically divided into four clusters according to host fish families. Through genome comparison, we observed that the putative pathogenic Nocardia strains had additional genes for iron acquisition. Dozens of antibiotic resistance genes were detected in the genomes of N. seriolae strains; most of the antibiotics were involved in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of proteins or cell walls. Our results demonstrated the virulence features and antibiotic resistance of fish pathogenic N. seriolae strains at the genomic level. These results may be useful to develop strategies for the prevention of fish nocardiosis. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


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