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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sea cucumber genome provides insights into saponin biosynthesis and aestivation regulation.

Echinoderms exhibit several fascinating evolutionary innovations that are rarely seen in the animal kingdom, but how these animals attained such features is not well understood. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the genome and extensive transcriptomes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, a species from a special echinoderm group with extraordinary potential for saponin synthesis, aestivation and organ regeneration. The sea cucumber does not possess a reorganized Hox cluster as previously assumed for all echinoderms, and the spatial expression of Hox7 and Hox11/13b potentially guides the embryo-to-larva axial transformation. Contrary to the typical production of lanosterol in animal…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in ready-to-eat vegetables in China.

Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer’s markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing. CRE isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten vegetable samples yielded one or more CRE isolates. The highest detection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of a novel multidrug resistance plasmid pSGB23 isolated from Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul.

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul (S. Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored. In this study, we sequenced and fully characterized an S. enterica MDR plasmid pSGB23 isolated from chicken.Complete genome sequence analysis revealed that S.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The integrative conjugative element clc (ICEclc) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa JB2.

Integrative conjugative elements (ICE) are a diverse group of chromosomally integrated, self-transmissible mobile genetic elements (MGE) that are active in shaping the functions of bacteria and bacterial communities. Each type of ICE carries a characteristic set of core genes encoding functions essential for maintenance and self-transmission, and cargo genes that endow on hosts phenotypes beneficial for niche adaptation. An important area to which ICE can contribute beneficial functions is the biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds. In the biodegradation realm, the best-characterized ICE is ICEclc, which carries cargo genes encoding for ortho-cleavage of chlorocatechols (clc genes) and aminophenol metabolism (amn genes). The…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel bacteriocin BMP11 and its antibacterial mechanism on cell envelope of Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii

Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii are notorious pathogens involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks after ingested contaminated food. Bacteriocins are natural food preservatives, some of which have antimicrobial activity comparable with antibiotics. In this study, a plasmid encoded novel bacteriocin BMP11 produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 was innovatively identified by combining complete genome and LC-MS/MS. The BMP11 was found to have rich a-helix conformation after prediction. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of BMP11 was verified after its heterologous expression in E. coli with 1280 and 640 AU/mL against L. monocytogenes and C. sakazakii, respectively. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and HPLC, BMP11…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli ST58 causing urosepsis.

Sequence type 58 (ST58) phylogroup B1 Escherichia coli have been isolated from a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts but are not noted for their ability to cause serious disease in humans or animals. Here we determined the genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant E. coli ST58 strains from urine and blood of one patient using a combination of Illumina and Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing. Both ST58 strains were clonal and were characterised as serotype O8:H25, phylogroup B1 and carried a complex resistance locus/loci (CRL) that featured an atypical class 1 integron with a dfrA5 (trimethoprim resistance) gene cassette…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii TUA4408L and evaluation of the antiviral activities of its extracellular polysaccharides in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

In lactic acid bacteria, the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been associated with some favorable technological properties as well as health-promoting benefits. Research works have shown the potential of EPS produced by lactobacilli to differentially modulate immune responses. However, most studies were performed in immune cells and few works have concentrated in the immunomodulatory activities of EPS in non-immune cells such as intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effects of EPS have not been studied in detail. In this work, we have performed a genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conversion of methionine to cysteine in Lactobacillus paracasei depends on the highly mobile cysK-ctl-cysE gene cluster.

Milk and dairy products are rich in nutrients and are therefore habitats for various microbiomes. However, the composition of nutrients can be quite diverse, in particular among the sulfur containing amino acids. In milk, methionine is present in a 25-fold higher abundance than cysteine. Interestingly, a fraction of strains of the species L. paracasei – a flavor-enhancing adjunct culture species – can grow in medium with methionine as the sole sulfur source. In this study, we focus on genomic and evolutionary aspects of sulfur dependence in L. paracasei strains. From 24 selected L. paracasei strains, 16 strains can grow in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in a highly virulent Escherichia coli lineage.

Resistance to last-line polymyxins mediated by the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) represents a new threat to global human health. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an mcr-1-positive multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (MS8345). We show that MS8345 belongs to serotype O2:K1:H4, has a large 241,164-bp IncHI2 plasmid that carries 15 other antibiotic resistance genes (including the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase blaCTX-M-1) and 3 putative multidrug efflux systems, and contains 14 chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes. MS8345 also carries a large ColV-like virulence plasmid that has been associated with E. coli bacteremia. Whole-genome phylogeny revealed that MS8345 clusters within a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Update on Tetracycline Susceptibility of Pediococcus acidilactici Based on Strains Isolated from Swiss Cheese and Whey.

Bacterial strains used as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods may act as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. To avoid the introduction of such genes into the food chain, the presence of acquired AbR in bacterial strains added to food must be tested. Standard protocols and microbiological cut-off values have been defined to provide practitioners with a basis for evaluating whether their bacterial isolates harbor an acquired resistance to a given antibiotic. Here, we tested the AbR of 24 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici by using the standard protocol and microbiological cut-off values recommended by the European Food…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus with a resistance plasmid.

The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characterization of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus strain with a resistance plasmid.En. casseliflavus EC369 was isolated from a patient in a hospital in southern China. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found by means of the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis were performed to analyze the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal gene transfer of the resistance gene-related mobile genetic elements.En. casseliflavus EC369 showed resistance to erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, but was susceptible to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptothricin and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Quaternary ammonium compounds with multiple cationic moieties (multiQACs) provide antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni

Recently developed quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) possessing multiple cationic moieties, referred to as multiQACs, were tested with strains of Campylobacter jejuni to determine their potential as antimicrobial compounds against this important foodborne pathogen. Eight multiQACs were tested against a cocktail of six C. jejuni strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources. The resulting reductions in C. jejuni numbers mediated by the multiQACs were compared to the reductions produced by the application of four commercially available QACs, each of which bears a single cation. Multiple concentrations and exposure times were utilized for all compounds. The compounds which yielded the maximum C.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genotypes and phenotypes of Enterococci isolated from broiler chickens

The objective of this study was to compare the resistance phenotypes to genotypes of enterococci from broiler and to evaluate the persistence and distribution of resistant genotypes in broiler fed bambermycin (BAM), penicillin (PEN), salinomycin (SAL), bacitracin (BAC) or a salinomycin/bacitracin combination (SALBAC) for 35 days. A total of 95 enterococci from cloacal (n=40), cecal (n=38) and litter collected on day 36 (n=17) samples were isolated weekly from day 7 to 36. All isolates were identified by API-20 Strep and their antimicrobial susceptibilities were evaluated using the Sensititre system with the commercially available NARMS’s plates of Gram positive bacteria. Whole…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Identification of restriction-modification systems of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 by SMRT Sequencing and associated methylome analysis.

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is a component of a commercialized fermented dairy product for which beneficial effects on health has been studied by clinical and preclinical trials. To date little is known about the molecular mechanisms that could explain the beneficial effects that bifidobacteria impart to the host. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified as key obstacles in the genetic accessibility of bifidobacteria, and circumventing these is a prerequisite to attaining a fundamental understanding of bifidobacterial attributes, including the genes that are responsible for health-promoting properties of this clinically and industrially important group of bacteria. The complete genome…

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