July 7, 2019  |  

Bioaugmentated activated sludge degradation of progesterone: Kinetics and mechanism

Progesterone (PGT) is not completely removed in conventional treatment plants, and the processing results may have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, an effective PGT-degradation bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. HYW, was newly isolated from the pharmaceutical plant and was used to augment degradation of PGT. When grown in a mineral medium (MM) containing a trace amount of PGT (500?µg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source, the results show that 99% of PGT was degraded within 1?h and followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Bioaugmentation of PGT-contaminated activated sludge greatly enhanced the PGT degradation rate (~91%) and its derivatives degradation rate were also greatly improved (>83%). The process of PGT degradation in non-bioaugmented PGT-contaminated activated sludge (NBS) and bioaugmentation activated sludge with the bacterial consortium(BS) also conforms to the first-order kinetic model. Furthermore, 12 and 11 biodegradation products for PGT in the NBS and BS were identified using HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap XL™, respectively. Based on these biodegradation products, two degradation pathways for PGT in NBS and BS were proposed, respectively. Comparing the degradation kinetics and metabolites, it was found that BS degrades PGT more rapidly and can further convert PGT to a small molecular acid. Finally, to reveal the probable cause for the differences in the PGT degradation efficiency and products in the NBS and BS.

July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Staphylococcus lugdunensis shows a closed pan-genome and multiple barriers to horizontal gene transfer.

Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are commensal bacteria on human skin. Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a unique CoNS which produces various virulence factors and may, like S. aureus, cause severe infections, particularly in hospital settings. Unlike other staphylococci, it remains highly susceptible to antimicrobials, and genome-based phylogenetic studies have evidenced a highly conserved genome that distinguishes it from all other staphylococci.We demonstrate that S. lugdunensis possesses a closed pan-genome with a very limited number of new genes, in contrast to other staphylococci that have an open pan-genome. Whole-genome nucleotide and amino acid identity levels are also higher than in other staphylococci. We identified numerous genetic barriers to horizontal gene transfer that might explain this result. The S. lugdunensis genome has multiple operons encoding for restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas and toxin/antitoxin systems. We also identified a new PIN-like domain-associated protein that might belong to a larger operon, comprising a metalloprotease, that could function as a new toxin/antitoxin or detoxification system.We show that S. lugdunensis has a unique genome profile within staphylococci, with a closed pan-genome and several systems to prevent horizontal gene transfer. Its virulence in clinical settings does not rely on its ability to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes or other virulence factors as shown for other staphylococci.

July 7, 2019  |  

Fe-S cluster assembly in oxymonads and related protists.

The oxymonad Monocercomonoides exilis was recently reported to be the first eukaryote that has completely lost the mitochondrial compartment. It was proposed that an important prerequisite for such a radical evolutionary step was the acquisition of the SUF Fe-S cluster assembly pathway from prokaryotes, making the mitochondrial ISC pathway dispensable. We have investigated genomic and transcriptomic data from six oxymonad species and their relatives, composing the group Preaxostyla (Metamonada, Excavata), for the presence and absence of enzymes involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. None possesses enzymes of mitochondrial ISC pathway and all apparently possess the SUF pathway, composed of SufB, C, D, S, and U proteins, altogether suggesting that the transition from ISC to SUF preceded their last common ancestor. Interestingly, we observed that SufDSU were fused in all three oxymonad genomes, and in the genome of Paratrimastix pyriformis. The donor of the SUF genes is not clear from phylogenetic analyses, but the enzyme composition of the pathway and the presence of SufDSU fusion suggests Firmicutes, Thermotogae, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, or Chloroflexi as donors. The inventory of the downstream CIA pathway enzymes is consistent with that of closely related species that retain ISC, indicating that the switch from ISC to SUF did not markedly affect the downstream process of maturation of cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins.

July 7, 2019  |  

One complete and three draft genome sequences of four Brochothrix thermosphacta strains, CD 337, TAP 175, BSAS1 3 and EBP 3070.

Brochothrix thermosphacta is one of the dominant bacterial species associated with spoilage of chilled meat and seafood products through the production of various metabolites responsible for off-odors. However, metabolic pathways leading to meat and seafood spoilage are not all well known. The production of spoiling molecules seems to depend both on strains and on food matrix. Several B. thermosphacta genome sequences have been reported, all issued from meat isolates. Here, we report four genome sequences, one complete and three as drafts. The four B. thermosphacta strains CD 337, TAP 175, BSAS1 3, and EBP 3070 were isolated from different ecological niches (seafood or meat products either spoiled or not and bovine slaughterhouse). These strains known as phenotypically and genetically different were selected to represent intraspecies diversity. CD 337 genome is 2,594,337 bp long, complete and circular, containing 2593 protein coding sequences and 28 RNA genes. TAP 175, BSAS1 3, and EBP 3070 genomes are arranged in 57, 83, and 71 contigs, containing 2515, 2668, and 2611 protein-coding sequences, respectively. These genomes were compared with two other B. thermosphacta complete genome sequences. The main genome content differences between strains are phages, plasmids, restriction/modification systems, and cell surface functions, suggesting a similar metabolic potential but a different niche adaptation capacity.

July 7, 2019  |  

Lifestyle of Lactobacillus hordei isolated from water kefir based on genomic, proteomic and physiological characterization.

Water kefir is a traditional fermented beverage made from sucrose, water, kefir granules, dried or fresh fruits. In our water kefir granules, Lactobacillus (L.) hordei is one of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species of this presumed symbiotic consortium. It faces abundant sucrose versus limitation of amino- and fatty acids in an acidic environment. Sequencing of the genome of L. hordei TMW 1.1822 revealed one chromosome plus three plasmids. The size of the chromosome was 2.42?Mbp with a GC content of 35% GC and 2461 predicted coding sequences. Furthermore, we identified 1474 proteins upon growth on water kefir medium. Metabolic prediction revealed all enzymes required for the glycolytic Embden-Meyerhof (EMP) and phosphoketolase (PKP) pathways. Genes encoding all enzymes involved in citrate, pyruvate and mannitol metabolism are present. Moreover, it was confirmed that L. hordei is prototrophic for 11 amino acids and auxotrophic for 6 amino acids when combining putative biosynthesis pathways for amino acids with physiological characterization. Still, for glycine, serine and methionine no sure auxotype could be determined. The OppABCDF peptide transport system is complete, and 13 genes encoding peptidases are present. The arginine deiminase system, was predicted to be complete except for carbamate kinase, thus enabling neutralization reactions via ammonium formation but no additional energy generation. Taken together our findings enable prediction of the L. hordei lifestyle in water kefir: Abundant sucrose is consumed directly via parallel EMP and PK pathways and is also extracellularly converted to dextran and fructose by a glucansucrase, leaving fructose as additional carbon source. Essential amino acids (in the form of peptides) and citrate are acquired from fruits. In the lack of FabB unsaturated fatty acids are synthesized by predicted alternative enzymes. Formation of acetoin and diacetyl as well as arginine conversion reactions enable acidification limitation. Other members of the water kefir consortium (yeasts, acetic acid bacteria) likely facilitate or support growth of L. hordei by delivering gluconate, mannitol, amino- and fatty acids and vitamins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Emergence of tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5 during tigecycline salvage treatment.

Here, we report a case of severe infection caused by Escherichia coli that harbored mcr-1, blaNDM-5, and acquired resistance to tigecycline during tigecycline salvage therapy.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Southern blot hybridization, and complete genome sequence of the strains were carried out. The genetic characteristics of the mcr-1 and blaNDM-5 plasmids were analyzed. The whole genome sequencing of mcr-1-containing plasmid was completed. Finally, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletion mutations in the tigecycline-resistant strain were predicted.Three E. coli isolates were obtained from ascites, pleural effusion, and stool of a patient; they were resistant to almost all the tested antibiotics. The first two strains separated from ascites (E-FQ) and hydrothorax (E-XS) were susceptible to amikacin and tigecycline; however, the third strain from stool (E-DB) was resistant to tigecycline after nearly 3 weeks’ treatment with tigecycline. All three isolates possessed both mcr-1 and blaNDM-5. The blaNDM-5 gene was found on the IncX3 plasmid, whereas the mcr-1, fosA3 and blaCTX-M-14 were located on the IncHI2 plasmid. Mutations in acrB and lon were the reason for the resistance to tigecycline.This is the first report of a colistin-, carbapenem-, and tigecycline-resistant E. coli in China. Tigecycline resistance acquired during tigecycline therapy is of great concern for us because tigecycline is a drug of last resort to treat carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Furthermore, the transmission of such extensively drug-resistant isolates may pose a great threat to public health.

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