April 21, 2020  |  

Salmonella Genomic Island 3 Is an Integrative and Conjugative Element and Contributes to Copper and Arsenic Tolerance of Salmonella enterica.

Salmonella genomic island 3 (SGI3) was first described as a chromosomal island in Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The SGI3 DNA sequence detected from Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolated in Japan was identical to that of a previously reported one across entire length of 81?kb. SGI3 consists of 86 open reading frames, including a copper homeostasis and silver resistance island (CHASRI) and an arsenic tolerance operon, in addition to genes related to conjugative transfer and DNA replication or partitioning, suggesting that the island is a mobile genetic element. We successfully selected transconjugants that acquired SGI3 after filter-mating experiments using the S. enterica serovars Typhimurium, Heidelberg, Hadar, Newport, Cerro, and Thompson as recipients. Southern blot analysis using I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA demonstrated that SGI3 was integrated into a chromosomal fragment of the transconjugants. PCR and sequencing analysis demonstrated that SGI3 was inserted into the 3′ end of the tRNA genes pheV or pheR The length of the target site was 52 or 55?bp, and a 55-bp attI sequence indicating generation of the circular form of SGI3 was also detected. The transconjugants had a higher MIC against CuSO4 compared to the recipient strains under anaerobic conditions. Tolerance was defined by the cus gene cluster in the CHASRI. The transconjugants also had distinctly higher MICs against Na2HAsO4 compared to recipient strains under aerobic conditions. These findings clearly demonstrate that SGI3 is an integrative and conjugative element and contributes to the copper and arsenic tolerance of S. enterica.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica Strains (Including Those of Serotypes Montevideo, Mbandaka, and Lubbock) Isolated from Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Healthy Cattle.

Salmonella enterica serotype Lubbock emerged most likely from a Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka ancestor that acquired by recombination the fliC operon from Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of two S. Lubbock, one S. Montevideo, and one S. Mbandaka strain isolated from bovine lymph nodes.


April 21, 2020  |  

Novel trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA34 identified in Salmonella Heidelberg in the USA.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a synthetic antibiotic combination recommended for the treatment of complicated non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in humans. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is mediated by the acquisition of mobile genes, requiring both a dfr gene (trimethoprim resistance) and a sul gene (sulfamethoxazole resistance) for a clinical resistance phenotype (MIC =4/76?mg/L). In 2017, the CDC investigated a multistate outbreak caused by a Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg strain with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance, in which sul genes but no known dfr genes were detected.To characterize and describe the molecular mechanism of trimethoprim resistance in a Salmonella Heidelberg outbreak isolate.Illumina sequencing data for one outbreak isolate revealed a 588?bp ORF encoding a putative dfr gene. This gene was cloned into Escherichia coli and resistance to trimethoprim was measured by broth dilution and Etest. Phylogenetic analysis of previously reported dfrA genes was performed using MEGA. Long-read sequencing was conducted to determine the context of the novel dfr gene.The novel dfr gene, named dfrA34, conferred trimethoprim resistance (MIC =32?mg/L) when cloned into E. coli. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, dfrA34 shares less than 50% identity with other known dfrA genes. The dfrA34 gene is located in a class 1 integron in a multiresistance region of an IncC plasmid, adjacent to a sul gene, thus conferring clinical trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. Additionally, dfrA34 is associated with ISCR1, enabling easy transmission between other plasmids and bacterial strains.


April 21, 2020  |  

Retrospective whole-genome sequencing analysis distinguished PFGE and drug-resistance-matched retail meat and clinical Salmonella isolates.

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of outbreak and sporadic-associated foodborne illnesses in the United States. These infections have been associated with a range of foods, including retail meats. Traditionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) have been used to facilitate public health investigations of Salmonella infections. However, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as an alternative tool that can be routinely implemented. To assess its potential in enhancing integrated surveillance in Pennsylvania, USA, WGS was used to directly compare the genetic characteristics of 7 retail meat and 43 clinical historic Salmonella isolates, subdivided into 3 subsets based on PFGE and AST results, to retrospectively resolve their genetic relatedness and identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses revealed that the retail meat isolates within S. Heidelberg, S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 1 and S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 2 were separated from each primary PFGE pattern-matched clinical isolate by 6-12, 41-96 and 21-81 SNPs, respectively. Fifteen resistance genes were identified across all isolates, including fosA7, a gene only recently found in a limited number of Salmonella and a =95?%?phenotype to genotype correlation was observed for all tested antimicrobials. Moreover, AMR was primarily plasmid-mediated in S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 2, whereas AMR was chromosomally carried in S. Typhimurium var. O5- subset 1. Similar plasmids were identified in both the retail meat and clinical isolates. Collectively, these data highlight the utility of WGS in retrospective analyses and enhancing integrated surveillance for Salmonella from multiple sources.


April 21, 2020  |  

Multidrug-Resistant Bovine Salmonellosis Predisposing for Severe Human Clostridial Myonecrosis.

BACKGROUND The overuse of antibiotics in animals promotes the development of multidrug-resistance predisposing for severe polymicrobial human infections. CASE REPORT We describe a case of spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis due to ulcerative colonic infection with multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serotype 4,[5],12: i: -. Serotyping of the colonic Salmonella isolate in the index case and the bovine farm outbreak isolates from where the patient worked indicated they were both serotype I 4,[5],12: i: -, which is linked with a multitude of large reported disease outbreaks. Further analysis revealed that they are highly genetically related and antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated that they are phenotypically identical. CONCLUSIONS Enteritis due to human acquisition of multidrug-resistant Salmonella from cattle led to the invasion and dissemination of Clostridium septicum resulting in devastating myonecrotic disease. This highlights the ramifications of co-existence and evolution of pathogenic bacteria in animals and humans and lends support to reducing the use of antibiotics in animals.


April 21, 2020  |  

An African Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 sublineage with extensive drug-resistance and signatures of host adaptation.

Bloodstream infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium constitute a major health burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These invasive non-typhoidal (iNTS) infections are dominated by isolates of the antibiotic resistance-associated sequence type (ST) 313. Here, we report emergence of ST313 sublineage II.1 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Sublineage II.1 exhibits extensive drug resistance, involving a combination of multidrug resistance, extended spectrum ß-lactamase production and azithromycin resistance. ST313 lineage II.1 isolates harbour an IncHI2 plasmid we name pSTm-ST313-II.1, with one isolate also exhibiting decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Whole genome sequencing reveals that ST313 II.1 isolates have accumulated genetic signatures potentially associated with altered pathogenicity and host adaptation, related to changes observed in biofilm formation and metabolic capacity. Sublineage II.1 emerged at the beginning of the 21st century and is involved in on-going outbreaks. Our data provide evidence of further evolution within the ST313 clade associated with iNTS in SSA.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of an NDM-5 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST156 isolate from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains has posed a severe threat to public health in recent years. The mobile elements carrying the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactqtamase (NDM) gene have been regarded as the major mechanism leading to the rapid increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinics and animals.We describe an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli strain, ECCRA-119 (sequence type 156 [ST156]), isolated from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China. ECCRA-119 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate that exhibited resistance to 27 antimicrobial compounds, including imipenem and meropenem, as detected by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The complete genome sequence of the ECCRA-119 isolate was also obtained using the PacBio RS II platform. Eleven acquired resistance genes were identified in the chromosome; four were detected in plasmid pTB201, while six were detected in plasmid pTB202. Importantly, the carbapenem-resistant gene blaNDM-5 was detected in the IncX3 plasmid pTB203. In addition, seven virulence genes and one metal-resistance gene were also detected. The results of conjugation experiments and the transfer regions identification indicated that the blaNDM-5-harboring plasmid pTB203 could be transferred between E. coli strains.The results reflected the severe bacterial resistance in a poultry farm in Zhejiang province and increased our understanding of the presence and transmission of the blaNDM-5 gene.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Sequences of Multiple-Drug Resistant IncHI2 ST3 Plasmids in Escherichia coli of Porcine Origin in Australia

IncHI2 ST3 plasmids are known carriers of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Complete plasmid sequences from multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli circulating in Australian swine is however limited. Here we sequenced two related IncHI2 ST3 plasmids, pSDE-SvHI2 and pSDC-F2_12BHI2, from phylogenetically unrelated multiple-drug resistant Escherichia coli strains SvETEC (CC23:O157:H19) and F2_12B (ST93:O7:H4) from geographically disparate pig production operations in New South Wales, Australia. Unicycler was used to co-assemble short read (Illumina) and long read (PacBio SMRT) nucleotide sequence data. The plasmids encoded three drug-resistance loci, two of which carried class 1 integrons. One integron, hosting drfA12-orfF-aadA2, was within a hybrid Tn1721/21, with the second residing within a copper/silver resistance transposon, comprising part of an atypical sul3-associated structure. The third resistance locus was flanked by IS15DI and encoded neomycin resistance (neoR). An oqx-encoding transposon (quinolone resistance), similar in structure to Tn6010, was identified only in pSDC-F2_12BHI2. Both plasmids showed high sequence identity to plasmid pSTM6-275, recently described in Salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- that has risen to prominence and become endemic in Australia. IncHI2 ST3 plasmids circulating in commensal and pathogenic E. coli from Australian swine belong to a lineage of plasmids often in association with sul3 and host multiple complex antibiotic and metal resistance structures, formed in part by IS26.


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