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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Neisseria lactamica Y92-1009 complete genome sequence.

We present the high quality, complete genome assembly of Neisseria lactamica Y92-1009 used to manufacture an outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-based vaccine, and a member of the Neisseria genus. The strain is available on request from the Public Health England Meningococcal Reference Unit. This Gram negative, dipplococcoid bacterium is an organism of worldwide clinical interest because human nasopharyngeal carriage is related inversely to the incidence of meningococcal disease, caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The organism sequenced was isolated during a school carriage survey in Northern Ireland in 1992 and has been the subject of a variety of laboratory and clinical studies. Four…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome and plasmid sequences of Escherichia coli KV7, an extended-spectrum ß-lactamase isolate derived from feces of a healthy pig.

We present single-contig assemblies for Escherichia coli strain KV7 (serotype O27, phylogenetic group D) and its six plasmids, isolated from a healthy pig, as determined by PacBio RS II and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The chromosome of 4,997,475 bp and G+C content of 50.75% harbored 4,540 protein-encoding genes. Copyright © 2017 Bateman et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences.

Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First detailed genetic characterization of the structural organization of type III arginine catabolic mobile elements harbored by Staphylococcus epidermidis by using whole-genome sequencing.

The type III arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was detected in three Staphylococcus epidermidis oral isolates recovered from separate patients (one healthy, one healthy with dental implants, and one with periodontal disease) based on ACME-arc-operon- and ACME-opp3-operon-directed PCR. These isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing to characterize the precise structural organization of ACME III for the first time, which also revealed that all three isolates were the same sequence type, ST329. Copyright © 2017 McManus et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Building a locally diploid genome and transcriptome of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus.

The genome of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus is characterized by highly diverged haplotypes that intersperse its homozygous genome. Here, we describe how a combination of PacBio DNA and Illumina RNA sequencing can be used to resolve this complex genomic landscape locally into the highly diverged haplotypes, and how to map various environmentally controlled transcripts onto individual haplotypes. We assembled PacBio sequence data with the FALCON assembler and created a haplotype resolved annotation of the assembly using annotations of a Sanger sequenced F. cylindrus genome. RNA-seq datasets from six different growth conditions were used to resolve allele-specifc gene expression in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel multiresistance cfr plasmids in linezolid-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from a hospital outbreak: co-location of cfr and optrA in VRE.

Linezolid is often the drug of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid resistance can be mutational (23S rRNA or L-protein) or, less commonly, acquired [predominantly cfr, conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A compounds (PhLOPSA) or optrA, encoding oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance].To investigate the clonality and genetic basis of linezolid resistance in 13 linezolid-resistant (LZDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates recovered during a 2013/14 outbreak in an ICU in an Irish hospital and an LZDR vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from an LZDR-MRSE-positive patient.All isolates underwent PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA sequencing, DNA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Diversity oriented biosynthesis via accelerated evolution of modular gene clusters.

Erythromycin, avermectin and rapamycin are clinically useful polyketide natural products produced on modular polyketide synthase multienzymes by an assembly-line process in which each module of enzymes in turn specifies attachment of a particular chemical unit. Although polyketide synthase encoding genes have been successfully engineered to produce novel analogues, the process can be relatively slow, inefficient, and frequently low-yielding. We now describe a method for rapidly recombining polyketide synthase gene clusters to replace, add or remove modules that, with high frequency, generates diverse and highly productive assembly lines. The method is exemplified in the rapamycin biosynthetic gene cluster where, in a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First report of cfr-encoding plasmids in the pandemic sequence type (ST) 22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type-IV clone.

Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins, cfr encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance, its homolgue cfr(B) or optrA conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean.

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces formicae KY5, the formicamycin producer.

Here we report the complete genome of the new species Streptomyces formicae KY5 isolated from Tetraponera fungus growing ants. S. formicae was sequenced using the PacBio and 454 platforms to generate a single linear chromosome with terminal inverted repeats. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to correct base changes resulting from the high error rate associated with PacBio. The genome is 9.6 Mbps, has a GC content of 71.38% and contains 8162 protein coding sequences. Predictive analysis shows this strain encodes at least 45 gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including a type 2 polyketide synthase encoding cluster for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Short genome report of cellulose-producing commensal Escherichia coli 1094.

Bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation often rely on the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix that mediates cell-cell and cell-surface contacts. In Escherichia coli and many Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria cellulose is often the main component of the extracellular matrix. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the cellulose producing strain E. coli 1094 and compare it with five other closely related genomes within E. coli phylogenetic group A. We present a comparative analysis of the regions encoding genes responsible for cellulose biosynthesis and discuss the changes that could have led to the loss of this important adaptive advantage…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First description of novel arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs) types IV and V harboring a kdp operon in Staphylococcus epidermidis characterized by whole genome sequencing.

The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was first described in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 and is thought to facilitate survival on skin. To date three distinct ACME types have been characterized comprehensively in S. aureus and/or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Type I harbors the arc and opp3 operons encoding an arginine deaminase pathway and an oligopeptide permease ABC transporter, respectively, type II harbors the arc operon only, and type III harbors the opp3 operon only. To investigate the diversity and detailed genetic organization of ACME, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 32 ACME-harboring oro-nasal S. epidermidis isolates using MiSeq-…

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