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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Clinical PathoScope: rapid alignment and filtration for accurate pathogen identification in clinical samples using unassembled sequencing data.

The use of sequencing technologies to investigate the microbiome of a sample can positively impact patient healthcare by providing therapeutic targets for personalized disease treatment. However, these samples contain genomic sequences from various sources that complicate the identification of pathogens.Here we present Clinical PathoScope, a pipeline to rapidly and accurately remove host contamination, isolate microbial reads, and identify potential disease-causing pathogens. We have accomplished three essential tasks in the development of Clinical PathoScope. First, we developed an optimized framework for pathogen identification using a computational subtraction methodology in concordance with read trimming and ambiguous read reassignment. Second, we have demonstrated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Community profiling of Fusarium in combination with other plant associated fungi in different crop species using SMRT Sequencing.

Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures. Up to now, most molecular tools that monitor Fusarium communities on plants are limited to certain species and do…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A comprehensive quality evaluation system for complex herbal medicine using PacBio sequencing, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and several chemical approaches.

Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length transcriptome of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus provides insights into evolution of genus Misgurnus.

Reconstruction and annotation of transcripts, particularly for a species without reference genome, plays a critical role in gene discovery, investigation of genomic signatures, and genome annotation in the pre-genomic era. This study generated 33,330 full-length transcripts of diploid M. anguillicaudatus using PacBio SMRT Sequencing. A total of 6,918 gene families were identified with two or more isoforms, and 26,683 complete ORFs with an average length of 1,497?bp were detected. Totally, 1,208 high-confidence lncRNAs were identified, and most of these appeared to be precursor transcripts of miRNAs or snoRNAs. Phylogenetic tree of the Misgurnus species was inferred based on the 1,905…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Great differences in performance and outcome of high-throughput sequencing data analysis platforms for fungal metabarcoding.

Along with recent developments in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and thus fast accumulation of HTS data, there has been a growing need and interest for developing tools for HTS data processing and communication. In particular, a number of bioinformatics tools have been designed for analysing metabarcoding data, each with specific features, assumptions and outputs. To evaluate the potential effect of the application of different bioinformatics workflow on the results, we compared the performance of different analysis platforms on two contrasting high-throughput sequencing data sets. Our analysis revealed that the computation time, quality of error filtering and hence output of specific…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-resolution community profiling of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Community analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) using ribosomal small subunit (SSU) or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences often suffer from low resolution or coverage. We developed a novel sequencing based approach for a highly resolving and specific profiling of AMF communities. We took advantage of previously established AMF-specific PCR primers that amplify a c. 1.5-kb long fragment covering parts of SSU, ITS and parts of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU), and we sequenced the resulting amplicons with single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The method was applicable to soil and root samples, detected all major AMF families and successfully…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Root endophytes and invasiveness: no difference between native and non-native Phragmites in the Great Lakes Region

Microbial interactions could play an important role in plant invasions. If invasive plants associate with relatively more mutualists or fewer pathogens than their native counterparts, then microbial communities could foster plant invasiveness. Studies examining the effects of microbes on invasive plants commonly focus on a single microbial group (e.g., bacteria) or measure only plant response to microbes, not documenting the specific taxa associating with invaders. We surveyed root microbial communities associated with co-occurring native and non-native lineages of Phragmites australis, across Michigan, USA. Our aim was to determine whether (1) plant lineage was a stronger predictor of root microbial community…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Magic pools: Parallel assessment of transposon delivery vectors in bacteria

Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach for discovering the functions of bacterial genes. However, the development of a suitable TnSeq strategy for a given bacterium can be costly and time-consuming. To meet this challenge, we describe a part-based strategy for constructing libraries of hundreds of transposon delivery vectors, which we term “magic pools.” Within a magic pool, each transposon vector has a different combination of upstream sequences (promoters and ribosome binding sites) and antibiotic resistance markers as well as a random DNA barcode sequence, which allows the tracking of each vector during mutagenesis experiments. To…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb.The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar “Chunpoong” were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function.

One-third of all protein-coding genes from bacterial genomes cannot be annotated with a function. Here, to investigate the functions of these genes, we present genome-wide mutant fitness data from 32 diverse bacteria across dozens of growth conditions. We identified mutant phenotypes for 11,779 protein-coding genes that had not been annotated with a specific function. Many genes could be associated with a specific condition because the gene affected fitness only in that condition, or with another gene in the same bacterium because they had similar mutant phenotypes. Of the poorly annotated genes, 2,316 had associations that have high confidence because they…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Actinidia arguta using the PacBio RS II platform.

Actinidia arguta is the most basal species in a phylogenetically and economically important genus in the family Actinidiaceae. To better understand the molecular basis of the Actinidia arguta chloroplast (cp), we sequenced the complete cp genome from A. arguta using Illumina and PacBio RS II sequencing technologies. The cp genome from A. arguta was 157,611 bp in length and composed of a pair of 24,232 bp inverted repeats (IRs) separated by a 20,463 bp small single copy region (SSC) and an 88,684 bp large single copy region (LSC). Overall, the cp genome contained 113 unique genes. The cp genomes from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of the ancient tracheophyte Selaginella tamariscina reveals evolutionary features relevant to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Resurrection plants, which are the “gifts” of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying the genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27 761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is an almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive Selaginella moellendorffii. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses highlight the unique…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

B chromosomes of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) contribute to genome variations at the level of individuals and populations.

The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a bony fish from the Latidae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. The karyotype of the Asian seabass contains 24 pairs of A chromosomes and a variable number of AT- and GC-rich B chromosomes (Bchrs or Bs). Dot-like shaped and nucleolus-associated AT-rich Bs were microdissected and sequenced earlier. Here we analyzed DNA fragments from Bs to determine their repeat and gene contents using the Asian seabass genome as a reference. Fragments of 75 genes, including an 18S rRNA gene, were found in the Bs; repeats represented 2% of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Understanding explosive diversification through cichlid fish genomics.

Owing to their taxonomic, phenotypic, ecological and behavioural diversity and propensity for explosive diversification, the assemblages of cichlid fish in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika are important role models in evolutionary biology. With the release of five reference genomes and many additional genomic resources, as well as the establishment of functional genomic tools, the cichlid system has fully entered the genomic era. The in-depth genomic exploration of the East African cichlid fauna – in combination with the examination of their ecology, morphology and behaviour – permits novel insights into the way organisms diversify.

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

A Sequel to Sanger: amplicon sequencing that scales.

Although high-throughput sequencers (HTS) have largely displaced their Sanger counterparts, the short read lengths and high error rates of most platforms constrain their utility for amplicon sequencing. The present study tests the capacity of single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing implemented on the SEQUEL platform to overcome these limitations, employing 658 bp amplicons of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as a model system.By examining templates from more than 5000 species and 20,000 specimens, the performance of SMRT sequencing was tested with amplicons showing wide variation in GC composition and varied sequence attributes. SMRT and Sanger sequences were very similar, but…

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