April 21, 2020  |  

Polysaccharide utilization loci of North Sea Flavobacteriia as basis for using SusC/D-protein expression for predicting major phytoplankton glycans.

Marine algae convert a substantial fraction of fixed carbon dioxide into various polysaccharides. Flavobacteriia that are specialized on algal polysaccharide degradation feature genomic clusters termed polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). As knowledge on extant PUL diversity is sparse, we sequenced the genomes of 53 North Sea Flavobacteriia and obtained 400 PULs. Bioinformatic PUL annotations suggest usage of a large array of polysaccharides, including laminarin, a-glucans, and alginate as well as mannose-, fucose-, and xylose-rich substrates. Many of the PULs exhibit new genetic architectures and suggest substrates rarely described for marine environments. The isolates’ PUL repertoires often differed considerably within genera, corroborating ecological niche-associated glycan partitioning. Polysaccharide uptake in Flavobacteriia is mediated by SusCD-like transporter complexes. Respective protein trees revealed clustering according to polysaccharide specificities predicted by PUL annotations. Using the trees, we analyzed expression of SusC/D homologs in multiyear phytoplankton bloom-associated metaproteomes and found indications for profound changes in microbial utilization of laminarin, a-glucans, ß-mannan, and sulfated xylan. We hence suggest the suitability of SusC/D-like transporter protein expression within heterotrophic bacteria as a proxy for the temporal utilization of discrete polysaccharides.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterizing the major structural variant alleles of the human genome.

In order to provide a comprehensive resource for human structural variants (SVs), we generated long-read sequence data and analyzed SVs for fifteen human genomes. We sequence resolved 99,604 insertions, deletions, and inversions including 2,238 (1.6 Mbp) that are shared among all discovery genomes with an additional 13,053 (6.9 Mbp) present in the majority, indicating minor alleles or errors in the reference. Genotyping in 440 additional genomes confirms the most common SVs in unique euchromatin are now sequence resolved. We report a ninefold SV bias toward the last 5 Mbp of human chromosomes with nearly 55% of all VNTRs (variable number of tandem repeats) mapping to this portion of the genome. We identify SVs affecting coding and noncoding regulatory loci improving annotation and interpretation of functional variation. These data provide the framework to construct a canonical human reference and a resource for developing advanced representations capable of capturing allelic diversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole genome sequence of Auricularia heimuer (Basidiomycota, Fungi), the third most important cultivated mushroom worldwide.

Heimuer, Auricularia heimuer, is one of the most famous traditional Chinese foods and medicines, and it is the third most important cultivated mushroom worldwide. The aim of this study is to develop genomic resources for A. heimuer to furnish tools that can be used to study its secondary metabolite production capability, wood degradation ability and biosynthesis of polysaccharides. The genome was obtained from single spore mycelia of the strain Dai 13782 by using combined high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 4000 system with the PacBio RSII long-read sequencing platform. Functional annotation was accomplished by blasting protein sequences with different public available databases to obtain their corresponding annotations. It is 49.76Mb in size with a N50 scaffold size of 1,350,668bp and encodes 16,244 putative predicted genes. This is the first genome-scale assembly and annotation for A. heimuer, which is the third sequenced species in Auricularia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genetic characterization and potential molecular dissemination mechanism of tet(31) gene in Aeromonas caviae from an oxytetracycline wastewater treatment system.

Recently, the rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant was commonly found in Aeromonas salmonicida, Gallibacterium anatis, and Oblitimonas alkaliphila isolated from farming animals and related environment. However, its distribution in other bacteria and potential molecular dissemination mechanism in environment are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism underlying dissemination of tet(31) by analysing the tet(31)-carrying fragments in A. caviae strains isolated from an aerobic biofilm reactor treating oxytetracycline bearing wastewater. Twenty-three A. caviae strains were screened for the tet(31) gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three strains (two harbouring tet(31), one not) were subjected to whole genome sequencing using the PacBio RSII platform. Seventeen A. caviae strains carried the tet(31) gene and exhibited high resistance levels to oxytetracycline with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 256 to 512?mg/L. tet(31) was comprised of the transposon Tn6432 on the chromosome of A. caviae, and Tn6432 was also found in 15 additional tet(31)-positive A. caviae isolates by PCR. More important, Tn6432 was located on an integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like element, which could mediate the dissemination of the tet(31)-carrying transposon Tn6432 between bacteria. Comparative analysis demonstrated that Tn6432 homologs with the structure ISCR2-?phzF-tetR(31)-tet(31)-?glmM-sul2 were also carried by A. salmonicida, G. anatis, and O. alkaliphila, suggesting that this transposon can be transferred between species and even genera. This work provides the first report on the identification of the tet(31) gene in A. caviae, and will be helpful in exploring the dissemination mechanisms of tet(31) in water environment.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


April 21, 2020  |  

Agricultural intensification reduces microbial network complexity and the abundance of keystone taxa in roots.

Root-associated microbes play a key role in plant performance and productivity, making them important players in agroecosystems. So far, very few studies have assessed the impact of different farming systems on the root microbiota and it is still unclear whether agricultural intensification influences the structure and complexity of microbial communities. We investigated the impact of conventional, no-till, and organic farming on wheat root fungal communities using PacBio SMRT sequencing on samples collected from 60 farmlands in Switzerland. Organic farming harbored a much more complex fungal network with significantly higher connectivity than conventional and no-till farming systems. The abundance of keystone taxa was the highest under organic farming where agricultural intensification was the lowest. We also found a strong negative association (R2?=?0.366; P?


April 21, 2020  |  

A survey and evaluations of histogram-based statistics in alignment-free sequence comparison.

Since the dawn of the bioinformatics field, sequence alignment scores have been the main method for comparing sequences. However, alignment algorithms are quadratic, requiring long execution time. As alternatives, scientists have developed tens of alignment-free statistics for measuring the similarity between two sequences.We surveyed tens of alignment-free k-mer statistics. Additionally, we evaluated 33 statistics and multiplicative combinations between the statistics and/or their squares. These statistics are calculated on two k-mer histograms representing two sequences. Our evaluations using global alignment scores revealed that the majority of the statistics are sensitive and capable of finding similar sequences to a query sequence. Therefore, any of these statistics can filter out dissimilar sequences quickly. Further, we observed that multiplicative combinations of the statistics are highly correlated with the identity score. Furthermore, combinations involving sequence length difference or Earth Mover’s distance, which takes the length difference into account, are always among the highest correlated paired statistics with identity scores. Similarly, paired statistics including length difference or Earth Mover’s distance are among the best performers in finding the K-closest sequences. Interestingly, similar performance can be obtained using histograms of shorter words, resulting in reducing the memory requirement and increasing the speed remarkably. Moreover, we found that simple single statistics are sufficient for processing next-generation sequencing reads and for applications relying on local alignment. Finally, we measured the time requirement of each statistic. The survey and the evaluations will help scientists with identifying efficient alternatives to the costly alignment algorithm, saving thousands of computational hours.The source code of the benchmarking tool is available as Supplementary Materials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Effect of sulfur-iron modified biochar on the available cadmium and bacterial community structure in contaminated soils.

Cadmium contamination in paddy soils has aroused increasing concern around the world, and biochar has many positive properties, such as large specific surface areas, micro porous structure for the heavy metal immobilization in soils. However there are few studies on sulfur-iron modified biochar as well as its microbiology effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Cd immobilization effects of sulfur or sulfur-iron modified biochar and its related microbial community changes in Cd-contaminated soils. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that sulfur and iron were loaded on the raw biochar successfully. Sulfur-modified biochar (S-BC) and sulfur-iron modified biochar (SF-BC) addition increased pH value and the content of soil organic matter, and also decreased DTPA-extractable Cd. There was a negative significant correlation between organic matter content and the available Cd (P?


April 21, 2020  |  

The complete genome sequence of Ethanoligenens harbinense reveals the metabolic pathway of acetate-ethanol fermentation: A novel understanding of the principles of anaerobic biotechnology.

Ethanol-type fermentation is one of three main fermentation types in the acidogenesis of anaerobic treatment systems. Non-spore-forming Ethanoligenens is as a typical genus capable of ethanol-type fermentation in mixed culture (i.e. acetate-ethanol fermentation). This genus can produce ethanol, acetate, CO2, and H2 using carbohydrates, and has application potential in anaerobic bioprocesses. Here, the complete genome sequences and methylome of Ethanoligenens harbinense strains with different autoaggregative and coaggregative abilities were obtained using the PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing platform. The genome size of E. harbinense strains was about 2.97-3.10?Mb with 55.5% G+C content. 3020-3153 genes were annotated, most of which were methylated at specific sites or motifs. The methylation types included 6mA, 4mC, and unknown types. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated low levels of genetic similarity between E. harbinense and other well-known hydrogen-producing bacteria (i.e., Clostridium and Thermoanaerobacter) in phylogenesis. Hydrogen production of E. harbinense was catalyzed by genes that encode [FeFe]-hydrogenases and that were synthesized by three maturases of [FeFe]-H2ase. The metabolic mechanism of H2-ethanol co-production fermentation, catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was proposed. This study provides genetic and evolutionary information of a model genus for the further investigation of the metabolic pathway and regulatory network of ethanol-type fermentation and anaerobic bioprocesses for waste or wastewater treatment.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genetic basis of functional variability in adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

The enormous sizes of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) go along with complex genomic exon-intron architectures giving rise to multiple mRNA variants. There is a need for a comprehensive catalog of aGPCR variants for proper evaluation of the complex functions of aGPCRs found in structural, in vitro and animal model studies. We used an established bioinformatics pipeline to extract, quantify and visualize mRNA variants of aGPCRs from deeply sequenced transcriptomes. Data analysis showed that aGPCRs have multiple transcription start sites even within introns and that tissue-specific splicing is frequent. On average, 19 significantly expressed transcript variants are derived from a given aGPCR gene. The domain architecture of the N terminus encoded by transcript variants often differs and N termini without or with an incomplete seven-helix transmembrane anchor as well as separate seven-helix transmembrane domains are frequently derived from aGPCR genes. Experimental analyses of selected aGPCR transcript variants revealed marked functional differences. Our analysis has an impact on a rational design of aGPCR constructs for structural analyses and gene-deficient mouse lines and provides new support for independent functions of both, the large N terminus and the transmembrane domain of aGPCRs.


April 21, 2020  |  

Combining next-generation sequencing and single-molecule sequencing to explore brown plant hopper responses to contrasting genotypes of japonica rice.

The brown plant hopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the major pest of rice (Oryza sativa). Plant defenses against insect herbivores have been extensively studied, but our understanding of insect responses to host plants’ resistance mechanisms is still limited. The purpose of this study is to characterize transcripts of BPH and reveal the responses of BPH insects to resistant rice at transcription level by using the advanced molecular techniques, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing.The current study obtained 24,891 collapsed isoforms of full-length transcripts, and 20,662 were mapped to known annotated genes, including 17,175 novel transcripts. The current study also identified 915 fusion genes, 1794 novel genes, 2435 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and 20,356 alternative splicing events. Moreover, analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that genes involved in metabolic and cell proliferation processes were significantly enriched in up-regulated and down-regulated sets, respectively, in BPH fed on resistant rice relative to BPH fed on susceptible wild type rice. Furthermore, the FoxO signaling pathway was involved and genes related to BPH starvation response (Nlbmm), apoptosis and autophagy (caspase 8, ATG13, BNIP3 and IAP), active oxygen elimination (catalase, MSR, ferritin) and detoxification (GST, CarE) were up-regulated in BPH responses to resistant rice.The current study provides the first demonstrations of the full diversity and complexity of the BPH transcriptome, and indicates that BPH responses to rice resistance, might be related to starvation stress responses, nutrient transformation, oxidative decomposition, and detoxification. The current result findings will facilitate further exploration of molecular mechanisms of interaction between BPH insects and host rice.


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