April 21, 2020  |  

Increased prevalence of Escherichia coli strains from food carrying blaNDM and mcr-1-bearing plasmids that structurally resemble those of clinical strains, China, 2015 to 2017.

Introduction: Emergence of resistance determinants of blaNDM and mcr-1 has undermined the antimicrobial effectiveness of the last line drugs carbapenems and colistin. Aim: This work aimed to assess the prevalence of blaNDM and mcr-1 in E. coli strains collected from food in Shenzhen, China, during the period 2015 to 2017. Methods: Multidrug-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from food samples. Plasmids encoding mcr-1 or blaNDM genes were characterised and compared with plasmids found in clinical isolates.ResultsAmong 1,166 non-repeated cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from 2,147 food samples, 390 and 42, respectively, were resistant to colistin and meropenem, with five strains being resistant to both agents. The rate of resistance to colistin increased significantly (p?

April 21, 2020  |  

Genomics and Experimental Analysis Reveal a Novel Factor Contributing to the Virulence of Cronobacter sakazakii Strains Associated With Neonate Infection.

Cronobacter sakazakii causes meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. However, its virulence determinants, especially those specific for strains associated with neonate infections, remain largely unknown.In this study, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 209 C. sakazakii genomes, and 8 clonal groups (CGs) were revealed.CG1 and CG2 were found to be significantly associated with neonate infections, and significantly prevalent genes in these 2 CGs were identified. Of these, a gene encoding the LysR-type regulator, CklR, was shown to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity based on animal experiments. We found that CklR directly binds and activates the suf Fe-S cluster biosynthesis operon, and high expression of the suf operon increases bacterial resistance to oxidative stress, which increases survival within the host. This leads to a high degree of bacteremia, which contributes to the development of meningitis.Our work revealed a novel virulence factor specific to predominant pathogenic C. sakazakii strains. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

April 21, 2020  |  

Whole Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated From Kimchi and Determination of Probiotic Properties to Treat Mucosal Infections by Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginalis.

Three Lactobacillus plantarum strains ATG-K2, ATG-K6, and ATG-K8 were isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food, and their probiotic potentials were examined. All three strains were free of antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, and biogenic amine production and therefore assumed to be safe, as supported by whole genome analyses. These strains demonstrated several basic probiotic functions including a wide range of antibacterial activity, bile salt hydrolase activity, hydrogen peroxide production, and heat resistance at 70°C for 60 s. Further studies of antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginalis revealed growth inhibitory effects from culture supernatants, coaggregation effects, and killing effects of the three probiotic strains, with better efficacy toward C. albicans. In vitro treatment of bacterial lysates of the probiotic strains to the RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line resulted in innate immunity enhancement via IL-6 and TNF-a production without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and anti-inflammatory effects via significantly increased production of IL-10 when co-treated with LPS. However, the degree of probiotic effect was different for each strain as the highest TNF-a and the lowest IL-10 production by the RAW264.7 cell were observed in the K8 lysate treated group compared to the K2 and K6 lysate treated groups, which may be related to genomic differences such as chromosome size (K2: 3,034,884 bp, K6: 3,205,672 bp, K8: 3,221,272 bp), plasmid numbers (K2: 3, K6 and K8: 1), or total gene numbers (K2: 3,114, K6: 3,178, K8: 3,186). Although more correlative inspections to connect genomic information and biological functions are needed, genomic analyses of the three strains revealed distinct genomic compositions of each strain. Also, this finding suggests genome level analysis may be required to accurately identify microorganisms. Nevertheless, L. plantarum ATG-K2, ATG-K6, and ATG-K8 demonstrated their potential as probiotics for mucosal health improvement in both microbial and immunological contexts.

July 19, 2019  |  

Exploring the roles of DNA methylation in the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

We performed whole-genome analyses of DNA methylation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to examine its possible role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed extensive methylation of adenine (N6mA) throughout the genome. These methylated bases were located in five sequence motifs, including three novel targets for type I restriction/modification enzymes. The sequence motifs targeted by putative methyltranferases were determined via SMRT sequencing of gene knockout mutants. In addition, we found that S. oneidensis MR-1 cultures grown under various culture conditions displayed different DNA methylation patterns. However, the small number of differentially methylated sites could not be directly linked to the much larger number of differentially expressed genes under these conditions, suggesting that DNA methylation is not a major regulator of gene expression in S. oneidensis MR-1. The enrichment of methylated GATC motifs in the origin of replication indicates that DNA methylation may regulate genome replication in a manner similar to that seen in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, comparative analyses suggest that many Gammaproteobacteria, including all members of the Shewanellaceae family, may also utilize DNA methylation to regulate genome replication.

July 7, 2019  |  

A novel Tn3-like composite transposon harboring blaVIM-1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae isolated from river water.

We present a new plasmid (pOW16C2) with a novel Tn3-like transposon harboring blaVIM-1 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from river water in Switzerland.Complete nucleotide sequence of pOW16C2 was obtained using a Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing approach and coding sequences were predicted.The 59,228?bp sequence included a typical IncN-like backbone and a mosaic structure with blaVIM-1, aacA4, aphA15, aadA1, catB2, qnrS1, sul1, and dfrA14 conferring resistance to carbapenems and other ß-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, respectively. Most of these resistance genes were inserted in a class 1 integron that was embedded in a novel Tn3-like composite transposon.IncN plasmids carrying carbapenemases are frequently isolated from K. pneumoniae strains in clinical settings. The dissemination of K. pneumoniae harboring blaVIM-1 in surface water is a cause for increased concern to public health.

July 7, 2019  |  

High resolution assembly and characterization of genomes of Canadian isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis.

There is a need to characterize genomes of the foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and identify genetic information that could be ultimately deployed for differentiating strains of the organism, a need that is yet to be addressed mainly because of the high degree of clonality of the organism. In an effort to achieve the first characterization of the genomes of SE of Canadian origin, we carried out massively parallel sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of 11 SE isolates obtained from poultry production environments (n?=?9), a clam and a chicken, assembled finished genomes and investigated diversity of the SE genome.The median genome size was 4,678,683 bp. A total of 4,833 chromosomal genes defined the pan genome of our field SE isolates consisting of 4,600 genes present in all the genomes, i.e., core genome, and 233 genes absent in at least one genome (accessory genome). Genome diversity was demonstrable by the presence of 1,360 loci showing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core genome which was used to portray the genetic distances by means of a phylogenetic tree for the SE isolates. The accessory genome consisted mostly of previously identified SE prophage sequences as well as two, apparently full-sized, novel prophages namely a 28 kb sequence provisionally designated as SE-OLF-10058 (3) prophage and a 43 kb sequence provisionally designated as SE-OLF-10012 prophage.The number of SNPs identified in the relatively large core genome of SE is a reflection of substantial diversity that could be exploited for strain differentiation as shown by the development of an informative phylogenetic tree. Prophage sequences can also be exploited for SE strain differentiation and lineage tracking. This work has laid the ground work for further studies to develop a readily adoptable laboratory test for the subtyping of SE.

July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544(T), a food-borne pathogen, isolated from a child’s throat.

Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of severe diseases: meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of this pathogen remains largely unknown. To determine its pathogenesis at the genomic level, the genome of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) was completely sequenced and analyzed.The genomic DNA, containing a circular chromosome and three plasmids, is composed of 4,511,265 bp with a GC content of 56.71%, containing 4380 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 22 rRNA genes, and 83 tRNA genes. The plasmids, designated pCSK29544_p1, pCSK29544_p2, and pCSK29544_p3, were 93,905-bp, 4938-bp, and 53,457-bp with GC contents of 57.02, 54.88, and 50.07%, respectively. They were also predicted to have 72, 6, and 57 ORFs without RNA genes.The strain ATCC 29544(T) genome has ompA and ibeB-homologous cusC genes, probably associated with the invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). In addition, gene clusters for siderophore production (iucABCD/iutA) and the related transport system (eitCBAD) were detected in pCSK29544_p1 plasmid, indicating better iron uptake ability for survival. Furthermore, to survive under extremely dry condition like milk powder, this genome has gene clusters for biosynthesis of capsular proteins (CSK29544_00281-00284) and cellulose (CSK29544_01124-01127) for biofilm formation and a gene cluster for utilization of sialic acid in the milk (nanKTAR). The genome information of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) would provide further understanding of its pathogenesis at the molecular level for the regulation of pathogenicity and the development of a rapid detection method using biomarkers.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the thermotolerant foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg ATCC 43845 and phylogenetic analysis of loci encoding increased protein quality control mechanisms.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg 775W (ATCC 43845), demonstrated an interesting observation that this strain contains not just one, but two horizontally acquired thermotolerance locus homologs. These two loci reside on a large 341.3-kbp plasmid that is similar to the well-studied IncHI2 R478 plasmid but lacks any antibiotic resistance genes found on R478 or other IncHI2 plasmids. As this historical Salmonella isolate has been in use since 1941, comparative analysis of the plasmid and of the thermotolerance loci contained on the plasmid will provide insight into the evolution of heat resistance loci as well as acquisition of resistance determinants in IncHI2 plasmids. IMPORTANCE Thermal interventions are commonly used in the food industry as a means of mitigating pathogen contamination in food products. Concern over heat-resistant food contaminants has recently increased, with the identification of a conserved locus shown to confer heat resistance in disparate lineages of Gram-negative bacteria. Complete sequence analysis of a historical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, used in numerous studies because of its novel heat resistance, revealed that this important strain possesses two distinct copies of this conserved thermotolerance locus, residing on a multireplicon IncHI2/IncHI2A plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis of these loci in comparison with homologs identified in various bacterial genera provides an opportunity to examine the evolution and distribution of loci conferring resistance to environmental stressors, such as heat and desiccation.

July 7, 2019  |  

Biofilm formation potential of heat-resistant Escherichia coli dairy isolates and the complete genome of multidrug-resistant, heat-resistant strain FAM21845.

We tested the biofilm formation potential of 30 heat-resistant and 6 heat-sensitive Escherichia coli dairy isolates. Production of curli and cellulose, static biofilm formation on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel surfaces, biofilm formation under dynamic conditions (Bioflux), and initial adhesion rates (IAR) were evaluated. Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media, and assays. Our results highlight the importance of the experimental setup in determining biofilm formation under conditions of interest, as correlation between different assays was often not a given. The heat-resistant, multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain FAM21845 showed the strongest biofilm formation on PS and the highest IAR and was the only strain that formed significant biofilms on stainless steel under conditions relevant to the dairy industry, and it was therefore fully sequenced. Its chromosome is 4.9 Mb long, and it harbors a total of five plasmids (147.2, 54.2, 5.8, 2.5, and 1.9 kb). The strain carries a broad range of genes relevant to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, including some on its two large conjugative plasmids, as demonstrated in plate mating assays.IMPORTANCE In biofilms, cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix that protects them from stresses, such as UV radiation, osmotic shock, desiccation, antibiotics, and predation. Biofilm formation is a major bacterial persistence factor of great concern in the clinic and the food industry. Many tested strains formed strong biofilms, and especially strains such as the heat-resistant, MDR strain FAM21845 may pose a serious issue for food production. Strong biofilm formation combined with diverse resistances (some encoded on conjugative plasmids) may allow for increased persistence, coselection, and possible transfer of these resistance factors. Horizontal gene transfer may conceivably occur in the food production setting or the gastrointestinal tract after consumption. Copyright © 2017 Marti et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence and bioinformatics analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis strain BM-BT15426.

This study aimed to investigate the genetic characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis strain BM-BT15426.B. thuringiensis strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. The genome was sequenced using PacBio RS II sequencers and assembled de novo using HGAP. Also, further genome annotation was performed.The genome of B. thuringiensis strain BM-BT15426 has a length of 5,246,329 bp and contains 5409 predicted genes with an average G + C content of 35.40%. Three genes were involved in the “Infectious diseases: Amoebiasis” pathway. A total of 21 virulence factors and 9 antibiotic resistant genes were identified.The major pathogenic factors of B. thuringiensis strain BM-BT15426 were identified through complete genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses which contributes to further study on pathogenic mechanism and phenotype of B. thuringiensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Sequencing a piece of history: complete genome sequence of the original Escherichia coli strain.

In 1885, Theodor Escherich first described the Bacillus coli commune, which was subsequently renamed Escherichia coli. We report the complete genome sequence of this original strain (NCTC 86). The 5?144?392?bp circular chromosome encodes the genes for 4805 proteins, which include antigens, virulence factors, antimicrobial-resistance factors and secretion systems, of a commensal organism from the pre-antibiotic era. It is located in the E. coli A subgroup and is closely related to E. coli K-12 MG1655. E. coli strain NCTC 86 and the non-pathogenic K-12, C, B and HS strains share a common backbone that is largely co-linear. The exception is a large 2?803?932?bp inversion that spans the replication terminus from gmhB to clpB. Comparison with E. coli K-12 reveals 41 regions of difference (577?351?bp) distributed across the chromosome. For example, and contrary to current dogma, E. coli NCTC 86 includes a nine gene sil locus that encodes a silver-resistance efflux pump acquired before the current widespread use of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, possibly resulting from the widespread use of silver utensils and currency in Germany in the 1800s. In summary, phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains confirmed that the original strain isolated by Escherich is most closely related to the non-pathogenic commensal strains. It is more distant from the root than the pathogenic organisms E. coli 042 and O157?:?H7; therefore, it is not an ancestral state for the species.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence analysis of Enterobacter sp. SA187, a plant multi-stress tolerance promoting endophytic bacterium

Enterobacter sp. SA187 is an endophytic bacterium that has been isolated from root nodules of the indigenous desert plant Indigofera argentea. SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic stress tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sequence of SA187 was obtained by using Pacific BioScience (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing technology, with average coverage of 275X. The genome of SA187 consists of one single 4,429,597 bp chromosome, with an average 56% GC content and 4,347 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDS), 153 ncRNA, 7 rRNA, and 84 tRNA. Functional analysis of the SA187 genome revealed a large number of genes involved in uptake and exchange of nutrients, chemotaxis, mobilization and plant colonization. A high number of genes were also found to be involved in survival, defense against oxidative stress and production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins. Moreover, different metabolic pathways were identified that potentially contribute to plant growth promotion. The information encoded in the genome of SA187 reveals the characteristics of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands.

July 7, 2019  |  

Fully closed genome sequences of five type strains of the genus Cronobacter and one Cronobacter sakazakii strain.

Cronobacteris associated with infant infections and the consumption of reconstituted infant formula. Here we sequenced and closed six genomes ofC. condimenti(T),C. muytjensii(T),C. universalis(T),C. malonaticus(T),C. dublinensis(T), andC. sakazakiithat can be used as reference genomes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for source tracking investigations. Copyright © 2016 Moine et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of the starch-degrading myxobacteria Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668T.

Myxobacteria are members of d-proteobacteria and are typified by large genomes, well-coordinated social behavior, gliding motility, and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. Here, we report the 10.33 Mb whole genome of a starch-degrading myxobacterium Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668(T) that encodes 8,962 proteins, 56 tRNA, and two rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity reveal its divergence from other myxobacterial species and support its taxonomic characterization into a separate family Sandaracinaceae, within the suborder Sorangiineae. Sequence similarity searches using the Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) database help identify the enzyme repertoire of S. amylolyticus involved in starch, agar, chitin, and cellulose degradation. We identified 16 a-amylases and two ?-amylases in the S. amylolyticus genome that likely play a role in starch degradation. While many of the amylases are seen conserved in other d-proteobacteria, we notice several novel amylases acquired via horizontal transfer from members belonging to phylum Deinococcus-Thermus, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. No agar degrading enzyme(s) were identified in the S. amylolyticus genome. Interestingly, several putative ß-glucosidases and endoglucanases proteins involved in cellulose degradation were identified. However, the absence of cellobiohydrolases/exoglucanases corroborates with the lack of cellulose degradation by this bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Defluviimonas alba cai42(T), a microbial exopolysaccharides producer.

Defluviimonas alba cai42(T), isolated from the oil-production water in Xinjiang Oilfield in China, has a strong ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). We hereby present its complete genome sequence information which consists of a circular chromosome and three plasmids. The strain characteristically contains various genes encoding for enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, modification, and export. According to the genomic and physiochemical data, it is predicted that the strain has the potential to be utilized in industrial production of microbial EPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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