Clostridium formicoaceticum, a Gram-negative mixotrophic homoacetogen, produces acetic acid as the sole metabolic product from various carbon sources, including fructose, glycerol, formate, and CO2. Its genome of 4.59-Mbp contains a highly conserved Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster with the same layout as that in other mixotrophic acetogens, including Clostridium aceticum, Clostridium carboxidivorans, and Clostridium ljungdahlii. For energy conservation, C. formicoaceticum does not have all the genes required for the synthesis of cytochrome or quinone used for generating proton gradient in H+-dependent acetogens such as Moorella thermoacetica; instead, it has the Rnf system and a Na+-translocating ATPase similar to the one in Acetobacterium woodii. Its growth in both heterotrophic and autotrophic media were dependent on the sodium concentration. C. formicoaceticum has genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which could convert acetyl-CoA and acetate to ethanol and butyrate to butanol under excessive reducing equivalent conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.