In the wake of constant improvements in sequencing technologies, numerous insect genomes have been sequenced. Currently, 1219 insect genome-sequencing projects have been registered with the National Center for Biotechnology Information, including 401 that have genome assemblies and 155 with an official gene set of annotated protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the expansion or contraction of gene families was associated with well-studied physiological traits such as immune system, metabolic detoxification, parasitism and polyphagy in insects. Here, we summarize the progress of insect genome sequencing, with an emphasis on how this impacts research on pest control. We begin with a brief introduction to the basic concepts of genome assembly, annotation and metrics for evaluating the quality of draft assemblies. We then provide an overview of genome information for numerous insect species, highlighting examples from prominent model organisms, agricultural pests and disease vectors. We also introduce the major insect genome databases. The increasing availability of insect genomic resources is beneficial for developing alternative pest control methods. However, many opportunities remain for developing data-mining tools that make maximal use of the available insect genome resources. Although rapid progress has been achieved, many challenges remain in the field of insect genomics. © 2019 The Royal Entomological Society.
Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are extra karyotype units in addition to A chromosomes, and are found in some fungi and thousands of animals and plant species. Bs are uniquely characterized due to their non-Mendelian inheritance, and represent one of the best examples of genomic conflict. Over the last decades, their genetic composition, function and evolution have remained an unresolved query, although a few successful attempts have been made to address these phenomena. A classical concept based on cytogenetics and genetics is that Bs are selfish and abundant with DNA repeats and transposons, and in most cases, they do not carry any function. However, recently, the modern quantum development of high scale multi-omics techniques has shifted B research towards a new-born field that we call “B-omics”. We review the recent literature and add novel perspectives to the B research, discussing the role of new technologies to understand the mechanistic perspectives of the molecular evolution and function of Bs. The modern view states that B chromosomes are enriched with genes for many significant biological functions, including but not limited to the interesting set of genes related to cell cycle and chromosome structure. Furthermore, the presence of B chromosomes could favor genomic rearrangements and influence the nuclear environment affecting the function of other chromatin regions. We hypothesize that B chromosomes might play a key function in driving their transmission and maintenance inside the cell, as well as offer an extra genomic compartment for evolution.
A High-Quality Grapevine Downy Mildew Genome Assembly Reveals Rapidly Evolving and Lineage-Specific Putative Host Adaptation Genes.
Downy mildews are obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens that cause devastating plant diseases on economically important crops. Plasmopara viticola is the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, a major disease in vineyards worldwide. We sequenced the genome of Pl. viticola with PacBio long reads and obtained a new 92.94?Mb assembly with high contiguity (359 scaffolds for a N50 of 706.5?kb) due to a better resolution of repeat regions. This assembly presented a high level of gene completeness, recovering 1,592 genes encoding secreted proteins involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Plasmopara viticola had a two-speed genome architecture, with secreted protein-encoding genes preferentially located in gene-sparse, repeat-rich regions and evolving rapidly, as indicated by pairwise dN/dS values. We also used short reads to assemble the genome of Plasmopara muralis, a closely related species infecting grape ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata). The lineage-specific proteins identified by comparative genomics analysis included a large proportion of RxLR cytoplasmic effectors and, more generally, genes with high dN/dS values. We identified 270 candidate genes under positive selection, including several genes encoding transporters and components of the RNA machinery potentially involved in host specialization. Finally, the Pl. viticola genome assembly generated here will allow the development of robust population genomics approaches for investigating the mechanisms involved in adaptation to biotic and abiotic selective pressures in this species. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the survival of the subaerial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme in arid and exposed habitats.
The cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme is an extremophile that thrives under extraordinary desiccation and ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions. To investigate its survival strategies, we performed whole-genome sequencing of N. flagelliforme CCNUN1 and transcriptional profiling of its field populations upon rehydration in BG11 medium. The genome of N. flagelliforme is 10.23 Mb in size and contains 10 825 predicted protein-encoding genes, making it one of the largest complete genomes of cyanobacteria reported to date. Comparative genomics analysis among 20 cyanobacterial strains revealed that genes related to DNA replication, recombination and repair had disproportionately high contributions to the genome expansion. The ability of N. flagelliforme to thrive under extreme abiotic stresses is supported by the acquisition of genes involved in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus, the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids, responses to UV radiation, and a peculiar role of ornithine metabolism. Transcriptome analysis revealed a distinct acclimation strategy to rehydration, including the strong constitutive expression of genes encoding photosystem I assembly factors and the involvement of post-transcriptional control mechanisms of photosynthetic resuscitation. Our results provide insights into the adaptive mechanisms of subaerial cyanobacteria in their harsh habitats and have important implications to understand the evolutionary transition of cyanobacteria from aquatic environments to terrestrial ecosystems. © 2019 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We present reference-quality genome assembly and annotation for the stout camphor tree (Cinnamomum kanehirae (Laurales, Lauraceae)), the first sequenced member of the Magnoliidae comprising four orders (Laurales, Magnoliales, Canellales and Piperales) and over 9,000 species. Phylogenomic analysis of 13 representative seed plant genomes indicates that magnoliid and eudicot lineages share more recent common ancestry than monocots. Two whole-genome duplication events were inferred within the magnoliid lineage: one before divergence of Laurales and Magnoliales and the other within the Lauraceae. Small-scale segmental duplications and tandem duplications also contributed to innovation in the evolutionary history of Cinnamomum. For example, expansion of the terpenoid synthase gene subfamilies within the Laurales spawned the diversity of Cinnamomum monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.
Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversity around us. To gain this knowledge, these new genomes must be compared through genome alignment (at the sequence level) and comparative annotation (at the gene level). However, different alignment and annotation methods have different characteristics; before starting a comparative genomics analysis, it is important to understand the nature of, and biases and limitations inherent in, the chosen methods. This review is intended to act as a technical but high-level overview of the field that should provide this understanding. We briefly survey the state of the genome alignment and comparative annotation fields and potential future directions for these fields in a new, large-scale era of comparative genomics.
Construction of a Genomic Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library for the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Initial Analysis of ZW Chromosome-Derived BAC Inserts.
Knowledge on sex determination has proven valuable for commercial production of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to sex dimorphism of the male and female individuals. Previous studies indicated that prawn sex is determined by a ZW-ZZ chromosomal system, but no genomic information is available for the sex chromosome. Herein, we constructed a genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and identified the ZW-derived BAC clones for initial analysis of the sex chromosomal DNA sequence. The arrayed BAC library contains 200,448 clones with average insert size of 115.4 kb, corresponding to ~?4× coverage of the estimated 5.38 Gb genome. Based on a short female-specific marker, a Z- and a W-fragment were retrieved with the genomic walking method. Screening the BAC library using a ZW-specific marker as probe resulted in 12 positive clones. From these, a Z-derived (P331M17) and a W-derived (P122G2) BAC clones were randomly selected and sequenced by PacBio method. We report the construction of a large insert, deep-coverage, and high-quality BAC library for M. rosenbergii that provides a useful resource for positional cloning of target genes, genomic organization, and comparative genomics analysis. Our study not only confirmed the ZW/ZZ system but also discovered sex-linked genes on ZW chromosomes for the first time, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the genomic structure of sex chromosomes in M. rosenbergii.
Blast Fungal Genomes Show Frequent Chromosomal Changes, Gene Gains and Losses, and Effector Gene Turnover.
Pyricularia is a fungal genus comprising several pathogenic species causing the blast disease in monocots. Pyricularia oryzae, the best-known species, infects rice, wheat, finger millet, and other crops. As past comparative and population genomics studies mainly focused on isolates of P. oryzae, the genomes of the other Pyricularia species have not been well explored. In this study, we obtained a chromosomal-level genome assembly of the finger millet isolate P. oryzae MZ5-1-6 and also highly contiguous assemblies of Pyricularia sp. LS, P. grisea, and P. pennisetigena. The differences in the genomic content of repetitive DNA sequences could largely explain the variation in genome size among these new genomes. Moreover, we found extensive gene gains and losses and structural changes among Pyricularia genomes, including a large interchromosomal translocation. We searched for homologs of known blast effectors across fungal taxa and found that most avirulence effectors are specific to Pyricularia, whereas many other effectors share homologs with distant fungal taxa. In particular, we discovered a novel effector family with metalloprotease activity, distinct from the well-known AVR-Pita family. We predicted 751 gene families containing putative effectors in 7 Pyricularia genomes and found that 60 of them showed differential expression in the P. oryzae MZ5-1-6 transcriptomes obtained under experimental conditions mimicking the pathogen infection process. In summary, this study increased our understanding of the structural, functional, and evolutionary genomics of the blast pathogen and identified new potential effector genes, providing useful data for developing crops with durable resistance. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The complete genome sequence of Ethanoligenens harbinense reveals the metabolic pathway of acetate-ethanol fermentation: A novel understanding of the principles of anaerobic biotechnology.
Ethanol-type fermentation is one of three main fermentation types in the acidogenesis of anaerobic treatment systems. Non-spore-forming Ethanoligenens is as a typical genus capable of ethanol-type fermentation in mixed culture (i.e. acetate-ethanol fermentation). This genus can produce ethanol, acetate, CO2, and H2 using carbohydrates, and has application potential in anaerobic bioprocesses. Here, the complete genome sequences and methylome of Ethanoligenens harbinense strains with different autoaggregative and coaggregative abilities were obtained using the PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing platform. The genome size of E. harbinense strains was about 2.97-3.10?Mb with 55.5% G+C content. 3020-3153 genes were annotated, most of which were methylated at specific sites or motifs. The methylation types included 6mA, 4mC, and unknown types. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated low levels of genetic similarity between E. harbinense and other well-known hydrogen-producing bacteria (i.e., Clostridium and Thermoanaerobacter) in phylogenesis. Hydrogen production of E. harbinense was catalyzed by genes that encode [FeFe]-hydrogenases and that were synthesized by three maturases of [FeFe]-H2ase. The metabolic mechanism of H2-ethanol co-production fermentation, catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was proposed. This study provides genetic and evolutionary information of a model genus for the further investigation of the metabolic pathway and regulatory network of ethanol-type fermentation and anaerobic bioprocesses for waste or wastewater treatment.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A chromosome-level genome assembly of Cydia pomonella provides insights into chemical ecology and insecticide resistance.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella, a major invasive pest of pome fruit, has spread around the globe in the last half century. We generated a chromosome-level scaffold assembly including the Z chromosome and a portion of the W chromosome. This assembly reveals the duplication of an olfactory receptor gene (OR3), which we demonstrate enhances the ability of C. pomonella to exploit kairomones and pheromones in locating both host plants and mates. Genome-wide association studies contrasting insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with insecticide resistance, including three SNPs found in the promoter of CYP6B2. RNAi knockdown of CYP6B2 increases C. pomonella sensitivity to two insecticides, deltamethrin and azinphos methyl. The high-quality genome assembly of C. pomonella informs the genetic basis of its invasiveness, suggesting the codling moth has distinctive capabilities and adaptive potential that may explain its worldwide expansion.
Complete genome sequence analysis of the thermoacidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph “Candidatus Methylacidiphilum kamchatkense” strain Kam1 and comparison with its closest relatives.
The candidate genus “Methylacidiphilum” comprises thermoacidophilic aerobic methane oxidizers belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum. These are the first described non-proteobacterial aerobic methane oxidizers. The genes pmoCAB, encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase do not originate from horizontal gene transfer from proteobacteria. Instead, the “Ca. Methylacidiphilum” and the sister genus “Ca. Methylacidimicrobium” represent a novel and hitherto understudied evolutionary lineage of aerobic methane oxidizers. Obtaining and comparing the full genome sequences is an important step towards understanding the evolution and physiology of this novel group of organisms.Here we present the closed genome of “Ca. Methylacidiphilum kamchatkense” strain Kam1 and a comparison with the genomes of its two closest relatives “Ca. Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum” strain SolV and “Ca. Methylacidiphilum infernorum” strain V4. The genome consists of a single 2,2 Mbp chromosome with 2119 predicted protein coding sequences. Genome analysis showed that the majority of the genes connected with metabolic traits described for one member of “Ca. Methylacidiphilum” is conserved between all three genomes. All three strains encode class I CRISPR-cas systems. The average nucleotide identity between “Ca. M. kamchatkense” strain Kam1 and strains SolV and V4 is =95% showing that they should be regarded as separate species. Whole genome comparison revealed a high degree of synteny between the genomes of strains Kam1 and SolV. In contrast, comparison of the genomes of strains Kam1 and V4 revealed a number of rearrangements. There are large differences in the numbers of transposable elements found in the genomes of the three strains with 12, 37 and 80 transposable elements in the genomes of strains Kam1, V4 and SolV respectively. Genomic rearrangements and the activity of transposable elements explain much of the genomic differences between strains. For example, a type 1h uptake hydrogenase is conserved between strains Kam1 and SolV but seems to have been lost from strain V4 due to genomic rearrangements.Comparing three closed genomes of “Ca. Methylacidiphilum” spp. has given new insights into the evolution of these organisms and revealed large differences in numbers of transposable elements between strains, the activity of these explains much of the genomic differences between strains.
Replicon-Based Typing of IncI-Complex Plasmids, and Comparative Genomics Analysis of IncI?/K1 Plasmids.
IncI-complex plasmids can be divided into seven subgroups IncI1, IncI2, IncI?, IncB/O, IncK1, IncK2, and IncZ. In this study, a replicon-based scheme was proposed for typing IncI-complex plasmids into four separately clustering subgroups IncI2, IncI1/B/O, IncI?/K1 and IncK2/Z, the last three of which were combined from IncI1 and IncB/O, IncI? and IncK1, and IncK2 and IncZ, respectively. Four IncI?/K1 plasmids p205880-NR2, p14E509-CTXM, p11011-CTXM and p61806-CTXM were fully sequenced and compared with IncI?/K1 reference pCT, IncI2 reference R721, IncI1/B/O reference R64 and IncK2/Z reference pO26-CRL-125. These plasmids shared conserved gene organization in the replication and conjugal transfer regions, but displaying considerable sequence diversity among different subgroups. Remarkable modular differences were observed in the maintenance and transfer leading regions. p205880-NR2 contained no resistance genes or accessory modules, while the other seven plasmids acquired one or more accessory modules, which harbored mobile elements [including unit transposons, insertion sequence (IS)-based transposition units and individual IS elements] and associated resistance markers (especially including those involved in resistance to ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclins, phenicols, streptomycins, trimethoprims, sulphonamides, tunicamycins and erythromycins). Data presented here provided a deeper insight into diversification and evolution of IncI-complex plasmids.