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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Distinct Salmonella enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Lysosomal Cathepsin A plays a significant role in the processing of endogenous bioactive peptides.

Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. CTSA present in the lysosomal multienzyme complex to facilitate the correct lysosomal routing, stability and activation of with beta-galactosidase and alpha-neuraminidase. Beside CTSA has role in inactivation of bioactive peptides including bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and endothelin-I by cleavage of 1 or 2 amino acid(s) from C-terminal ends. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of CTSA on bioactive peptides in knock-in mice model of CTSA(S190A) . We investigated the level of bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a uropathogenic E. coli B2 sequence type 127 isolate harboring a chromosomally carried blaCTX-M-15 gene.

We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). Copyright © 2016 Zurfluh et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete circular genome sequence of successful ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: one-megabase genomic inversion, IS256’s spread, and evolution of Russia ST8-IV.

ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaß split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Divergent isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways in Staphylococcus species constitute a drug target for treating infections in companion animals.

Staphylococcus species are a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans and animals, and the antibiotics used to treat these infections are often the same. Methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections are becoming more common in human and veterinary medicine. From a “One Health” perspective, this overlap in antibiotic use and resistance raises concerns over the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed that Staphylococcus species use divergent pathways to synthesize isoprenoids. Species frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals, including S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, use the nonmevalonate pathway.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Neuraminidase A-exposed galactose promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation during colonization.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx. Herein we show that carbon availability is distinct between the nasopharynx and bloodstream of adult humans: glucose is absent from the nasopharynx, whereas galactose is abundant. We demonstrate that pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA), which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from host glycoproteins, exposed galactose on the surface of septal epithelial cells, thereby increasing its availability during colonization. We observed that S. pneumoniae mutants deficient in NanA and ß-galactosidase A (BgaA) failed to form biofilms in vivo despite normal biofilm-forming abilities in vitro Subsequently, we observed that glucose, sucrose, and fructose…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transfer of the methicillin resistance genomic island among staphylococci by conjugation.

Methicillin resistance creates a major obstacle for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The resistance gene, mecA, is carried on a large (20 kb to?>?60 kb) genomic island, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), that excises from and inserts site-specifically into the staphylococcal chromosome. However, although SCCmec has been designated a mobile genetic element, a mechanism for its transfer has not been defined. Here we demonstrate the capture and conjugative transfer of excised SCCmec. SCCmec was captured on pGO400, a mupirocin-resistant derivative of the pGO1/pSK41 staphylococcal conjugative plasmid lineage, and pGO400::SCCmec (pRM27) was transferred by filter-mating into both homologous and heterologous S.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic analyses of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 resequenced by single-molecule real-time sequencing.

As a third-generation sequencing (TGS) method, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology provides long read length, and it is well suited for resequencing projects and de novo assembly. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was characterized and resequenced using SMRT technology. PA1 was also subjected to genomic, comparative and pan-genomic analyses. The multidrug resistant strain PA1 possesses a 6,498,072 bp genome and a sequence type of ST-782. The genome of PA1 was also visualized, and the results revealed the details of general genome annotations, virulence factors, regulatory proteins (RPs), secretion system proteins, type II toxin-antitoxin (T-A) pairs and genomic islands. Whole genome comparison analysis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae KP36, a strain isolated from a patient with an upper urinary tract infection.

Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae KP36, a strain isolated from a patient with a severe community-acquired urinary tract infection. This genome provides insights into the pathogenesis of a pandemic K. pneumoniae strain from a community-acquired urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2016 Lin et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete and assembled genome sequence of an NDM-9- and CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 wastewater isolate from Switzerland.

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged worldwide and represent a major threat to human health. Here we report the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae 002SK2, an NDM-9- and CTX-M-15-producing strain isolated from wastewater in Switzerland and belonging to the international high-risk clone sequence type 147 (ST147).Whole-genome sequencing of K. pneumoniae 002SK2 was performed using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) technology RS2 reads (C4/P6 chemistry). De novo assembly was performed using Canu assembler, and sequences were annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP).The genome of K. pneumoniae 002SK2 consists of a 5.4-Mbp chromosome containing blaSHV-11 and fosA6, a 159-kb…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi: advances in the era of genomics.

Bacteria and fungi continue to develop new ways to adapt and survive the lethal or biostatic effects of antimicrobials through myriad mechanisms. Novel antibiotic resistance genes such as lsa(C), erm(44), VCC-1, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, bla KLUC-3 and bla KLUC-4 were discovered through comparative genomics and further functional studies. As well, mutations in genes that hitherto were unknown to confer resistance to antimicrobials, such as trm, PP2C, rpsJ, HSC82, FKS2 and Rv2887, were shown by genomics and transcomplementation assays to mediate antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida glabrata and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Thus, genomics,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First description of novel arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs) types IV and V harboring a kdp operon in Staphylococcus epidermidis characterized by whole genome sequencing.

The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was first described in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 and is thought to facilitate survival on skin. To date three distinct ACME types have been characterized comprehensively in S. aureus and/or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Type I harbors the arc and opp3 operons encoding an arginine deaminase pathway and an oligopeptide permease ABC transporter, respectively, type II harbors the arc operon only, and type III harbors the opp3 operon only. To investigate the diversity and detailed genetic organization of ACME, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 32 ACME-harboring oro-nasal S. epidermidis isolates using MiSeq-…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete and assembled genome sequence of an NDM-5- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 617 isolated from wastewater in Switzerland.

Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli have emerged worldwide and represent a major challenge to effective healthcare management. Here we report the genome sequence of an NDM-5- and CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonging to sequence type 617 isolated from wastewater treatment plant effluent in Switzerland.Whole-genome sequencing of E. coli 657SK2 was performed using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology RS2 reads (C4/P6 chemistry). De novo assembly was carried out using Canu 1.6, and sequences were annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP).The genome of E. coli 657SK2 consists of a 4.9-Mbp chromosome containing blaCTX-M-15, genes associated with virulence [fyuA, hlyE, the…

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