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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Synaptogyrin-2 influences replication of Porcine circovirus 2.

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a circular single-stranded DNA virus responsible for a group of diseases collectively known as PCV2 Associated Diseases (PCVAD). Variation in the incidence and severity of PCVAD exists between pigs suggesting a host genetic component involved in pathogenesis. A large-scale genome-wide association study of experimentally infected pigs (n = 974), provided evidence of a host genetic role in PCV2 viremia, immune response and growth during challenge. Host genotype explained 64% of the phenotypic variation for overall viral load, with two major Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) identified on chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the swine leukocyte antigen complex…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

CTX-M-65 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica serotype infantis, United States.

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found blaCTX-M-65 ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Allele-level KIR genotyping of more than a million samples: Workflow, algorithm, and observations.

The killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes regulate natural killer cell activity, influencing predisposition to immune mediated disease, and affecting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome. Owing to the complexity of the KIR locus, with extensive gene copy number variation (CNV) and allelic diversity, high-resolution characterization of KIR has so far been applied only to relatively small cohorts. Here, we present a comprehensive high-throughput KIR genotyping approach based on next generation sequencing. Through PCR amplification of specific exons, our approach delivers both copy numbers of the individual genes and allelic information for every KIR gene. Ten-fold replicate analysis of a set…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emergence of tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5 during tigecycline salvage treatment.

Here, we report a case of severe infection caused by Escherichia coli that harbored mcr-1, blaNDM-5, and acquired resistance to tigecycline during tigecycline salvage therapy.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Southern blot hybridization, and complete genome sequence of the strains were carried out. The genetic characteristics of the mcr-1 and blaNDM-5 plasmids were analyzed. The whole genome sequencing of mcr-1-containing plasmid was completed. Finally, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletion mutations in the tigecycline-resistant strain were predicted.Three E. coli isolates were obtained from ascites, pleural effusion, and stool of a patient; they were resistant to almost all the tested antibiotics. The first two…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome of the multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain KBN10P04869 isolated from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia

Recently, we isolated a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain KBN10P04869 from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. We report the complete genome of this strain which consists of 5,104,264 bp with 4,457 protein-coding genes, 88 tRNAs, and 22 rRNAs, and the co-occurrence of multidrug- resistant genes including bla CMY-2, bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla NDM-5, and blaOXA-18.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in different tissues, developmental stages and stress conditions of Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum is a widely known medicinal herb used mostly as a remedy for depression because of its abundant secondary metabolites. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an optimized method for the efficient and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. In general, reference genes are used in qRT-PCR analysis because of their known or suspected housekeeping roles. However, their expression level cannot be assumed to remain stable under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, the identification of high quality reference genes is very necessary for the interpretation of qRT-PCR data. In this study, we investigated the expression of fourteen candidate genes, including…

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