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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi: advances in the era of genomics.

Bacteria and fungi continue to develop new ways to adapt and survive the lethal or biostatic effects of antimicrobials through myriad mechanisms. Novel antibiotic resistance genes such as lsa(C), erm(44), VCC-1, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, bla KLUC-3 and bla KLUC-4 were discovered through comparative genomics and further functional studies. As well, mutations in genes that hitherto were unknown to confer resistance to antimicrobials, such as trm, PP2C, rpsJ, HSC82, FKS2 and Rv2887, were shown by genomics and transcomplementation assays to mediate antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida glabrata and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Thus, genomics,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium shigaense.

Mycobacterium shigaense is a slowly growing scotochromogenic species and a member of the Mycobacterium simiae complex group. Here, we report the complete sequence of its genome, comprising a 5.2-Mb chromosome. The sequence will represent the essential data for future phylogenetic and comparative genome studies of the Mycobacterium simiae complex group. Copyright © 2018 Yoshida et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa K34-7, a carbapenem-resistant isolate of the high-risk sequence type 233.

Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is defined as a textquotedblleftcriticaltextquotedblright priority pathogen for the development of new antibiotics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant, Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase-expressing isolate belonging to the high-risk sequence type 233.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Low-level antimicrobials in the medicinal leech select for resistant pathogens that spread to patients.

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) and ciprofloxacin (Cp) are important antimicrobials that pollute the environment in trace amounts. Although Cp has been recommended as prophylaxis for patients undergoing leech therapy to prevent infections by the leech gut symbiont Aeromonas, a puzzling rise in Cp-resistant (Cpr) Aeromonas infections has been reported. We report on the effects of subtherapeutic FQ concentrations on bacteria in an environmental reservoir, the medicinal leech, and describe the presence of multiple antibiotic resistance mutations and a gain-of-function resistance gene. We link the rise of CprAeromonas isolates to exposure of the leech microbiota to very low levels of Cp (0.01 to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Interpreting whole-genome sequence analyses of foodborne bacteria for regulatory applications and outbreak investigations.

Whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis has revolutionized the food safety industry by enabling high-resolution typing of foodborne bacteria. Higher resolving power allows investigators to identify origins of contamination during illness outbreaks and regulatory activities quickly and accurately. Government agencies and industry stakeholders worldwide are now analyzing WGS data routinely. Although researchers have published many studies that assess the efficacy of WGS data analysis for source attribution, guidance for interpreting WGS analyses is lacking. Here, we provide the framework for interpreting WGS analyses used by the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). We based this framework…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary emergence of drug resistance in Candida opportunistic pathogens.

Fungal infections, such as candidiasis caused by Candida, pose a problem of growing medical concern. In developed countries, the incidence of Candida infections is increasing due to the higher survival of susceptible populations, such as immunocompromised patients or the elderly. Existing treatment options are limited to few antifungal drug families with efficacies that vary depending on the infecting species. In this context, the emergence and spread of resistant Candida isolates are being increasingly reported. Understanding how resistance can evolve within naturally susceptible species is key to developing novel, more effective treatment strategies. However, in contrast to the situation of antibiotic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli serotype O75:H5:K1 strain mcjchv-1 (NMEC-O75).

Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is the second leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis worldwide. We report the genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant NMEC serotype O75:H5:K1 strain mcjchv-1, which resulted in an infant’s death. The O75 serogroup is rare among NMEC isolates; therefore, this strain is considered an emergent pathogen.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the…

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