April 21, 2020  |  

Chromosome-level reference genome of X12, a highly virulent race of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) is a major pest of soybean that is spreading across major soybean production regions worldwide. Increased SCN virulence has recently been observed in both the United States and China. However, no study has reported a genome assembly for H. glycines at the chromosome scale. Herein, the first chromosome-level reference genome of X12, an unusual SCN race with high infection ability, is presented. Using whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing, PacBio sequencing, Illumina paired-end sequencing, 10X Genomics linked reads and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) genome scaffolding techniques, a 141.01-Mb assembled genome was obtained with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 16.27 Mb and 330.54 kb, respectively. The assembly showed high integrity and quality, with over 90% of Illumina reads mapped to the genome. The assembly quality was evaluated using Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) and Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO). A total of 11,882 genes were predicted using De novo, Homolog and RNAseq data generated from eggs, second-stage juveniles (J2), third-stage juveniles (J3) and fourth-stage juveniles (J4) of X12, and 79.0% of homologous sequences were annotated in the genome. These high-quality X12 genome data will provide valuable resources for research in a broad range of areas, including fundamental nematode biology, SCN-plant interactions and coevolution, and also contribute to the development of technology for overall SCN management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Chromosome-level assembly of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) genome

Squamate reptiles exhibit high variation in their traits and geographical distribution and are therefore fascinating taxa for evolutionary and ecological research. However, high-quality genomic recourses are very limited for this group of species, which inhibits some research efforts. To address this gap, we assembled a high-quality genome of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara (Lacertidae) using a combination of high coverage Illumina (shotgun and mate-pair) and PacBio sequence data, with RNAseq data and genetic linkage maps. The 1.46 Gbp genome assembly has scaffold N50 of 11.52 Mbp with N50 contig size of 220.4 Kbp and only 2.96% gaps. A BUSCO analysis indicates that 97.7% of the single-copy Tetrapoda orthologs were recovered in the assembly. In total 19,829 gene models were annotated in the genome using a combination of three ab initio and homology-based methods. To improve the chromosome-level assembly, we generated a high-density linkage map from wild-caught families and developed a novel analytical pipeline to accommodate multiple paternity and unknown father genotypes. We successfully anchored and oriented almost 90% of the genome on 19 linkage groups. This annotated and oriented chromosome-level reference genome represents a valuable resource to facilitate evolutionary studies in squamate reptiles.


April 21, 2020  |  

Lateral transfers of large DNA fragments spread functional genes among grasses.

A fundamental tenet of multicellular eukaryotic evolution is that vertical inheritance is paramount, with natural selection acting on genetic variants transferred from parents to offspring. This lineal process means that an organism’s adaptive potential can be restricted by its evolutionary history, the amount of standing genetic variation, and its mutation rate. Lateral gene transfer (LGT) theoretically provides a mechanism to bypass many of these limitations, but the evolutionary importance and frequency of this process in multicellular eukaryotes, such as plants, remains debated. We address this issue by assembling a chromosome-level genome for the grass Alloteropsis semialata, a species surmised to exhibit two LGTs, and screen it for other grass-to-grass LGTs using genomic data from 146 other grass species. Through stringent phylogenomic analyses, we discovered 57 additional LGTs in the A. semialata nuclear genome, involving at least nine different donor species. The LGTs are clustered in 23 laterally acquired genomic fragments that are up to 170 kb long and have accumulated during the diversification of Alloteropsis. The majority of the 59 LGTs in A. semialata are expressed, and we show that they have added functions to the recipient genome. Functional LGTs were further detected in the genomes of five other grass species, demonstrating that this process is likely widespread in this globally important group of plants. LGT therefore appears to represent a potent evolutionary force capable of spreading functional genes among distantly related grass species. Copyright © 2019 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.


April 21, 2020  |  

A reference genome for pea provides insight into legume genome evolution.

We report the first annotated chromosome-level reference genome assembly for pea, Gregor Mendel’s original genetic model. Phylogenetics and paleogenomics show genomic rearrangements across legumes and suggest a major role for repetitive elements in pea genome evolution. Compared to other sequenced Leguminosae genomes, the pea genome shows intense gene dynamics, most likely associated with genome size expansion when the Fabeae diverged from its sister tribes. During Pisum evolution, translocation and transposition differentially occurred across lineages. This reference sequence will accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of agronomically important traits and support crop improvement.


April 21, 2020  |  

The sequencing and de novo assembly of the Larimichthys crocea genome using PacBio and Hi-C technologies.

Larimichthys crocea is an endemic marine fish in East Asia that belongs to Sciaenidae in Perciformes. L. crocea has now been recognized as an “iconic” marine fish species in China because not only is it a popular food fish in China, it is a representative victim of overfishing and still provides high value fish products supported by the modern large-scale mariculture industry. Here, we report a chromosome-level reference genome of L. crocea generated by employing the PacBio single molecule sequencing technique (SMRT) and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies. The genome sequences were assembled into 1,591 contigs with a total length of 723.86?Mb and a contig N50 length of 2.83?Mb. After chromosome-level scaffolding, 24 scaffolds were constructed with a total length of 668.67?Mb (92.48% of the total length). Genome annotation identified 23,657 protein-coding genes and 7262 ncRNAs. This highly accurate, chromosome-level reference genome of L. crocea provides an essential genome resource to support the development of genome-scale selective breeding and restocking strategies of L. crocea.


April 21, 2020  |  

The sequence and de novo assembly of Takifugu bimaculatus genome using PacBio and Hi-C technologies.

Takifugu bimaculatus is a native teleost species of the southeast coast of China where it has been cultivated as an important edible fish in the last decade. Genetic breeding programs, which have been recently initiated for improving the aquaculture performance of T. bimaculatus, urgently require a high-quality reference genome to facilitate genome selection and related genetic studies. To address this need, we produced a chromosome-level reference genome of T. bimaculatus using the PacBio single molecule sequencing technique (SMRT) and High-through chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies. The genome was assembled into 2,193 contigs with a total length of 404.21?Mb and a contig N50 length of 1.31?Mb. After chromosome-level scaffolding, 22 chromosomes with a total length of 371.68?Mb were constructed. Moreover, a total of 21,117 protein-coding genes and 3,471 ncRNAs were annotated in the reference genome. The highly accurate, chromosome-level reference genome of T. bimaculatus provides an essential genome resource for not only the genome-scale selective breeding of T. bimaculatus but also the exploration of the evolutionary basis of the speciation and local adaptation of the Takifugu genus.


April 21, 2020  |  

Chromosome assembly of Collichthys lucidus, a fish of Sciaenidae with a multiple sex chromosome system.

Collichthys lucidus (C. lucidus) is a commercially important marine fish species distributed in coastal regions of East Asia with the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosome system. The karyotype for female C. lucidus is 2n?=?48, while 2n?=?47 for male ones. Therefore, C. lucidus is also an excellent model to investigate teleost sex-determination and sex chromosome evolution. We reported the first chromosome genome assembly of C. lucidus using Illumina short-read, PacBio long-read sequencing and Hi-C technology. An 877?Mb genome was obtained with a contig and scaffold N50 of 1.1?Mb and 35.9?Mb, respectively. More than 97% BUSCOs genes were identified in the C. lucidus genome and 28,602 genes were annotated. We identified potential sex-determination genes along chromosomes and found that the chromosome 1 might be involved in the formation of Y specific metacentric chromosome. The first C. lucidus chromosome-level reference genome lays a solid foundation for the following population genetics study, functional gene mapping of important economic traits, sex-determination and sex chromosome evolution studies for Sciaenidae and teleosts.


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