The release of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] into water bodies poses a major threat to the environment and human health. However, studies of the biological response to Cr(VI) are limited. In this study, a toxic bacterial mechanism of Cr(VI) was investigated using Pannonibacter phragmitetus BB (hereafter BB), which was isolated from chromate slag. The maximum Cr(VI) concentrations with respect to the resistance and reduction by BB are 4000?mg?L-1 and 2500?mg?L-1, respectively. In the BB genome, more genes responsible for Cr(VI) resistance and reduction are observed compared with other P. phragmitetus strains. A total of 361 proteins were upregulated to respond to Cr(VI) exposure, including enzymes for Cr(VI) uptake, intracellular reduction, ROS detoxification, DNA repair, and Cr(VI) efflux and proteins associated with novel mechanisms involving extracellular reduction mediated by electron transfer, quorum sensing, and chemotaxis. Based on metabolomic analysis, 174 metabolites were identified. Most of the upregulated metabolites are involved in amino acid, glucose, lipid, and energy metabolisms. The results show that Cr(VI) induces metabolite production, while metabolites promote Cr(VI) reduction. Overall, multi-enzyme expression and metabolite production by BB contribute to its high ability to resist/reduce Cr(VI). This study provides details supporting the theory of Cr(VI) reduction and a theoretical basis for the efficient bioremoval of Cr(VI) from the environment. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A wide range of Arcobacter species have been described from shellfish in various countries but their presence has not been investigated in Australasia, in which shellfish are a popular delicacy. Since several arcobacters are considered to be emerging pathogens, we undertook a small study to evaluate their presence in several different shellfish, including greenshell mussels, oysters, and abalone (paua) in New Zealand. Arcobacter cryaerophilus, a species associated with human gastroenteritis, was the only species isolated, from greenshell mussels. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a range of genomic traits in these strains that were known or associated virulence factors. Furthermore, we describe the first putative virulence plasmid in Arcobacter, containing lytic, immunoavoidance, adhesion, antibiotic resistance, and gene transfer traits, among others. Complete genome sequence determination using a combination of long- and short-read genome sequencing strategies, was needed to identify the plasmid, clearly identifying its benefits. The potential for plasmids to disseminate virulence traits among Arcobacter and other species warrants further consideration by researchers interested in the risks to public health from these organisms.