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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PBHoover and CigarRoller: a method for confident haploid variant calling on Pacific Biosciences data and its application to heterogeneous population analysis

Motivation: Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has important and underutilized advantages that amplification-based platforms lack. Lack of systematic error (e.g. GC-bias), complete de novo assembly (including large repetitive regions) without scaffolding, can be mentioned. SMRT sequencing, however suffers from high random error rate and low sequencing depth (older chemistries). Here, we introduce PBHoover, software that uses a heuristic calling algorithm in order to make base calls with high certainty in low coverage regions. This software is also capable of mixed population detection with high sensitivity. PBHoovertextquoterights CigarRoller attachment improves sequencing depth in low-coverage regions through CIGAR-string correction. Results: We tested…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Potential survival and pathogenesis of a novel strain, Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_022, isolated from a soy sauce marinated crab by genome and transcriptome analyses.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause gastrointestinal illness through consumption of seafood. Despite frequent food-borne outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus, only 19 strains have subjected to complete whole-genome analysis. In this study, a novel strain of V. parahaemolyticus, designated FORC_022 (Food-borne pathogen Omics Research Center_022), was isolated from soy sauce marinated crabs, and its genome and transcriptome were analyzed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms. FORC_022 did not include major virulence factors of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh). However, FORC_022 showed high cytotoxicity and had several V. parahaemolyticus islands (VPaIs) and other virulence factors, such as various secretion systems (types I,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of the DNA methyltransferases establishing the methylome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

DNA methylation in bacteria is important for defense against foreign DNA, but is also involved in DNA repair, replication, chromosome partitioning, and regulatory processes. Thus, characterization of the underlying DNA methyltransferases in genetically tractable bacteria is of paramount importance. Here, we characterized the methylome and orphan methyltransferases in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed four DNA methylation recognition sequences in addition to the previously known motif m5CGATCG, which is recognized by M.Ssp6803I. For three of the new recognition sequences, we identified the responsible methyltransferases. M.Ssp6803II, encoded by the sll0729 gene, modifies GGm4CC, M.Ssp6803III,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Large scale changes in host methylation patterns induced by IncA/C plasmid transformation in Vibrio cholerae

DNA methylation is a central epigenetic modification and has diverse biological functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms alike. The IncA/C plasmid genomes are approximately 150kb in length and harbour three methylase genes, two of which demonstrate cytosine specificity. Transformation of the Vibrio cholerae strain C6706 with the IncA/C plasmid pVC211 resulted in a significant relabelling of the methylation patterns on the host chromosomes. The new methylation patterns induced by transformation with IncA/C plasmid were accepted by the restriction enzymes of the hosttextquoterights restriction modification (RM) system. These data uncover a novel mechanism by which plasmids can be compatible with a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to investigate the distribution and evolution of antimicrobial-resistance determinants and lineages.

The first extensively drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with high resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin ceftriaxone was identified in 2009 in Japan, but no other strain with this antimicrobial-resistance profile has been reported since. However, surveillance to date has been based on phenotypic methods and sequence typing, not genome sequencing. Therefore, little is known about the local population structure at the genomic level, and how resistance determinants and lineages are distributed and evolve. We analysed the whole-genome sequence data and the antimicrobial- susceptibility testing results of 204 strains sampled in a region where the first XDR ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative analyses of CTX prophage region of Vibrio cholerae seventh pandemic wave 1 strains isolated in Asia.

Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, and cholera toxin, the principal mediator of massive diarrhea, is encoded by ctxAB in the cholera toxin (CTX) prophage. In this study, the structures of the CTX prophage region of V. cholerae strains isolated during the seventh pandemic wave 1 in Asian countries were determined and compared. Eighteen strains were categorized into eight groups by CTX prophage region-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR profiles and the structure of the region of a representative strain from each group was determined by DNA sequencing. Eight representative strains revealed eight distinct CTX prophage regions with various combinations…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Therapeutic potential of a new jumbo phage that infects Vibrio coralliilyticus, a widespread coral pathogen.

Biological control using bacteriophages is a promising approach for mitigating the devastating effects of coral diseases. Several phages that infect Vibrio coralliilyticus, a widespread coral pathogen, have been isolated, suggesting that this bacterium is permissive to viral infection and is, therefore, a suitable candidate for treatment by phage therapy. In this study, we combined functional and genomic approaches to evaluate the therapeutic potential of BONAISHI, a novel V. coralliilyticus phage, which was isolated from the coral reef in Van Phong Bay (Vietnam). BONAISHI appears to be strictly lytic for several pathogenic strains of V. coralliilyticus and remains infectious over a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functionality of two origins of replication in Vibrio cholerae strains with a single chromosome.

Chromosomal inheritance in bacteria usually entails bidirectional replication of a single chromosome from a single origin into two copies and subsequent partitioning of one copy each into daughter cells upon cell division. However, the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and other Vibrionaceae harbor two chromosomes, a large Chr1 and a small Chr2. Chr1 and Chr2 have different origins, an oriC-type origin and a P1 plasmid-type origin, respectively, driving the replication of respective chromosomes. Recently, we described naturally occurring exceptions to the two-chromosome rule of Vibrionaceae: i.e., Chr1 and Chr2 fused single chromosome V. cholerae strains, NSCV1 and NSCV2, in which both…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-scale analysis of Acetobacterium bakii reveals the cold adaptation of psychrotolerant acetogens by post-transcriptional regulation.

Acetogens synthesize acetyl-CoA via CO2 or CO fixation, producing organic compounds. Despite their ecological and industrial importance, their transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation has not been systematically studied. With completion of the genome sequence of Acetobacterium bakii (4.28-Mb), we measured changes in the transcriptome of this psychrotolerant acetogen in response to temperature variations under autotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions. Unexpectedly, acetogenesis genes were highly up-regulated at low temperatures under heterotrophic, as well as autotrophic, growth conditions. To mechanistically understand the transcriptional regulation of acetogenesis genes via changes in RNA secondary structures of 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR), the primary transcriptome was experimentally determined,…

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