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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Case Study: With SMRT Sequencing for genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes, scientists are overcoming barriers in plant and animal research

Scientists are utilizing long-read PacBio sequencing to provide uniquely comprehensive views of complex plant and animal genomes. These efforts are uncovering novel biological mechanisms, enabling progress in crop development, and much more. To date, scientists have published over 1000 papers with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing, many covering breakthroughs in the plant and animal sciences. In this case study, we look at examples in model organisms Drosophila and C. elegans and non-model organisms coffee, Oropeitum, danshen, and sugarbeet, where SMRT Sequencing has contributed to a more accurate understanding of biology. These efforts underscore the broad applicability of long-read sequencing in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chlorella vulgaris genome assembly and annotation reveals the molecular basis for metabolic acclimation to high light conditions.

Chlorella vulgaris is a fast-growing fresh-water microalga cultivated at the industrial scale for applications ranging from food to biofuel production. To advance our understanding of its biology and to establish genetics tools for biotechnological manipulation, we sequenced the nuclear and organelle genomes of Chlorella vulgaris 211/11P by combining next generation sequencing and optical mapping of isolated DNA molecules. This hybrid approach allowed to assemble the nuclear genome in 14 pseudo-molecules with an N50 of 2.8 Mb and 98.9% of scaffolded genome. The integration of RNA-seq data obtained at two different irradiances of growth (high light-HL versus low light -LL) enabled…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Early Sex-chromosome Evolution in the Diploid Dioecious Plant Mercurialis annua.

Suppressed recombination allows divergence between homologous sex chromosomes and the functionality of their genes. Here, we reveal patterns of the earliest stages of sex-chromosome evolution in the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua on the basis of cytological analysis, de novo genome assembly and annotation, genetic mapping, exome resequencing of natural populations, and transcriptome analysis. The genome assembly contained 34,105 expressed genes, of which 10,076 were assigned to linkage groups. Genetic mapping and exome resequencing of individuals across the species range both identified the largest linkage group, LG1, as the sex chromosome. Although the sex chromosomes of M. annua are karyotypically…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans: Molecular structures and comparative analysis.

Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans, which belong to the genus Kaempferia family Zingiberaceae, are used as valuable herbal medicine and ornamental plants, respectively. The chloroplast genomes have been used for molecular markers, species identification and phylogenetic studies. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of K. galanga and K. elegans are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genome of K. galanga is 163,811 bp long, having a quadripartite structure with large single copy (LSC) of 88,405 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 15,812 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 29,797 bp. Similarly, the complete chloroplast…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A chromosome-level sequence assembly reveals the structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nd-1 genome and its gene set.

In addition to the BAC-based reference sequence of the accession Columbia-0 from the year 2000, several short read assemblies of THE plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were published during the last years. Also, a SMRT-based assembly of Landsberg erecta has been generated that identified translocation and inversion polymorphisms between two genotypes of the species. Here we provide a chromosome-arm level assembly of the A. thaliana accession Niederzenz-1 (AthNd-1_v2c) based on SMRT sequencing data. The best assembly comprises 69 nucleome sequences and displays a contig length of up to 16 Mbp. Compared to an earlier Illumina short read-based NGS assembly (AthNd-1_v1),…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Stout camphor tree genome fills gaps in understanding of flowering plant genome evolution.

We present reference-quality genome assembly and annotation for the stout camphor tree (Cinnamomum kanehirae (Laurales, Lauraceae)), the first sequenced member of the Magnoliidae comprising four orders (Laurales, Magnoliales, Canellales and Piperales) and over 9,000 species. Phylogenomic analysis of 13 representative seed plant genomes indicates that magnoliid and eudicot lineages share more recent common ancestry than monocots. Two whole-genome duplication events were inferred within the magnoliid lineage: one before divergence of Laurales and Magnoliales and the other within the Lauraceae. Small-scale segmental duplications and tandem duplications also contributed to innovation in the evolutionary history of Cinnamomum. For example, expansion of the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Genome of Cucurbita argyrosperma (Silver-Seed Gourd) Reveals Faster Rates of Protein-Coding Gene and Long Noncoding RNA Turnover and Neofunctionalization within Cucurbita.

Whole-genome duplications are an important source of evolutionary novelties that change the mode and tempo at which genetic elements evolve within a genome. The Cucurbita genus experienced a whole-genome duplication around 30 million years ago, although the evolutionary dynamics of the coding and noncoding genes in this genus have not yet been scrutinized. Here, we analyzed the genomes of four Cucurbita species, including a newly assembled genome of Cucurbita argyrosperma, and compared the gene contents of these species with those of five other members of the Cucurbitaceae family to assess the evolutionary dynamics of protein-coding and long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) genes…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome Sequence of Jaltomata Addresses Rapid Reproductive Trait Evolution and Enhances Comparative Genomics in the Hyper-Diverse Solanaceae.

Within the economically important plant family Solanaceae, Jaltomata is a rapidly evolving genus that has extensive diversity in flower size and shape, as well as fruit and nectar color, among its ~80 species. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation, of one representative species (Jaltomata sinuosa) from this genus. Combining PacBio long reads (25×) and Illumina short reads (148×) achieved an assembly of ~1.45?Gb, spanning ~96% of the estimated genome. Ninety-six percent of curated single-copy orthologs in plants were detected in the assembly, supporting a high level of completeness of the genome. Similar to other Solanaceous species, repetitive…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Hedychium coronarium

The first complete chloroplast genome of Hedychium coronarium (Zingiberaceae) was reported in this study. The H. coronarium chloroplast genome was 163,949bp in length and comprised a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 29,780bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 88,581bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 15,808bp. It encoded 141 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes (79 PCG species), 46 tRNA genes (28 tRNA species), and eight rRNA genes (four rRNA species). The nucleotide composition was asymmetric (31.68% A, 18.35% C, 17.74% G, 32.23% T) with an overall AT content of 63.92%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. coronarium…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of Hemiptelea davidii (Ulmaceae) and phylogenetic analysis

Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch is a potential valuable forest tree in arid sandy environments. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of H. davidii was assembled using a combination of the PacBio Sequel data and the Illumina Hiseq data. The mitochondrial genome is 460,941bp in length, including 37 protein-coding genes, 19 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The GC content of the whole mito- chondrial genome is 44.84%. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that H. davidii is close with Cannabis and Morus species.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome of the plant Stahlianthus Involucratus (Zingiberaceae)

The first complete chloroplast genome of Stahlianthus involucratus (Zingiberaceae) was reported in this study. The S. involucratus chloroplast genome was 163,300bp in length and consisted of one large sin- gle copy (LSC) region of 87,498bp, one small single copy (SSC) region of 15,568bp, and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions 30,117bp. It encoded 141 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes (79 PCG species), 46 tRNA genes (28 tRNA species) and 8 rRNA genes (4 rRNA species). The phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms strongly supported that S. involucratus, Curcuma roscoeana and Curcuma longa formed a cluster in group CurcumaII…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Amomum villosum

The first complete chloroplast genome of Amomum villosum (Zingiberaceae) was reported in this study. The A. villosum genome was 163,608bp in length, and comprised a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 29,820bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 88,680bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 15,288bp. It encoded 141 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes (79 PCG species), 46 tRNA genes (28 tRNA species), and 8 rRNA genes (4 rRNA species). The overall AT content was 63.92%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that A. villosum was closely related to two species Amomum kravanh and Amomum compactum within the genus Amomum…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Carthamus tinctorius L. from PacBio Sequel Platform

Carthamus tinctorius L, also known as safflower, is an important oil crop planted worldwide. The com- plete chloroplast (cp) genome was reported in this study using the PacBio Sequel Platform. The cp genome with a total size of 152,963bp consisted of two inverted repeats (25,128bp) separated by a large single-copy region (84,124bp) and a small single-copy region (18,583bp). Further annotation revealed the cp genome contains 112 genes, including 79 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. The information of the cp genome will be useful for investigation of evolution and molecular breeding of safflower in the future.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

High Quality Draft Genome of Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus), an Important Medicinal Plant Endemic to Western Ghats of India.

Arogyapacha, the local name of Trichopus zeylanicus, is a rare, indigenous medicinal plant of India. This plant is famous for its traditional use as an instant energy stimulant. So far, no genomic resource is available for this important plant and hence its metabolic pathways are poorly understood. Here, we report on a high-quality draft assembly of approximately 713.4 Mb genome of T. zeylanicus, first draft genome from the genus Trichopus The assembly was generated in a hybrid approach using Illumina short-reads and Pacbio longer-reads. The total assembly comprised of 22601 scaffolds with an N50 value of 433.3 Kb. We predicted…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The re-sequencing and re-assembly of complete chloroplast genome of Melastoma dodecandrum (Melastomataceae) from Fujian, China

The plant genus Melastoma of the family Melastomataceae is comprised of nine species and one var- iety in China. Melastoma dodecandrum is the only creeping species of this genus. Previous study has reported the complete chloroplast genome of M. dodecandrum from Guangzhou, China, but there may be some differences between plant populations from different regions. Herein, we reported the com- plete chloroplast genome of M. dodecandrum from Fuzhou, China, which was assembled from Pacbio and whole genome data was sequenced. The sequence has a circular molecular length of 156,598bp and contained 129 genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that M. dodecandrum was…

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