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Sunday, October 25, 2020

PAG Conference: An extreme metabolism: Iso-Seq analysis of the ruby-throated hummingbird transcriptome

Winston Timp from Johns Hopkins University studies the metabolism of hummingbirds, which sustain the highest metabolic rates among all vertebrates. Notably, hummingbirds can switch rapidly between a fuel of lipids to newly ingested sugars. This remarkable metabolism is supported by enzymes which operate at the extreme limit of catalytic efficiency. Understanding the molecular basis of enzymatic action will provide a foundation enabling rational engineering of metabolic circuits in other systems. To do this, Dr. Timp and his team generated a de novo transcriptome of the hummingbird liver using the Iso-Seq method. Characterization of the resulting protein coding sequences provides clues…

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

Webinar: Using Iso-Seq analysis to build a better annotation

Long-read sequencing technologies like Iso-Seq analysis present researchers with a powerful tool for probing the transcriptomes of many species. The ability to sequence transcripts from end-to-end has revealed transcription complexity on a scale that was previously impossible. This sequence rich information has also improved our ability to predict transcript functions and biotypes. Researchers can now use Iso-Seq analysis to discover transcript models in almost any species with an accuracy on par with human and mouse annotations. In this webinar, Richard Kuo discusses the core concepts behind Iso-Seq analysis and how to use it to improve or build a new transcriptome…

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

Webinar: SMRT Sequencing applications in plant and animal sciences: an overview

In this webinar, Emily Hatas of PacBio shares information about the applications and benefits of SMRT Sequencing in plant and animal biology, agriculture, and industrial research fields. This session contains an overview of several applications: whole-genome sequencing for de novo assembly; transcript isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) method for genome annotation; targeted sequencing solutions; and metagenomics and microbial interactions. High-level workflows and best practices are discussed for key applications.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

PAG Conference: Iso-Seq analysis for plant & animal genomes – annotation evaluation & phasing

In this presentation, Elizabeth Tseng explains how PacBio’s full-length RNA Sequencing using the Iso-Seq method can characterize full-length transcripts without the need for computational transcript assembly. The Iso-Seq method is fully supported bioinformatically through PacBio’s SMRT Analysis software that outputs high-quality, full-length transcript sequences that can be used for genome annotation and novel gene discovery. Elizabeth shows that the highly accurate reads can be used to discover allelic-specific isoform expressions in transcriptome data.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: The Iso-Seq method for discovering alternative splicing in human diseases

In this ASHG workshop presentation, Elizabeth Tseng of PacBio showed how the Iso-Seq method can be used to discover disease-associated alternative splicing. Because this approach to isoform sequencing yields accurate, full-length transcripts requiring no assembly, it’s ideal for disease studies that need a more comprehensive picture of alternative splicing activity. Tseng offered several published examples of how the Iso-Seq method has been used for everything from single-gene studies to whole-transcriptome studies, and also detailed how the latest Sequel System chemistry recovers more genes and produces more usable reads.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

User Group Meeting: No Assembly Required – Making the most of Iso-Seq data

In this PacBio User Group Meeting presentation, PacBio scientist Kristin Mars speaks about recent updates, such as the single-day library prep that’s now possible with the Iso-Seq Express workflow. She also notes that one SMRT Cell 8M is sufficient for most Iso-Seq experiments for whole transcriptome sequencing at an affordable price.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification and characterization of chicken circovirus from commercial broiler chickens in China.

Circoviruses are found in many species, including mammals, birds, lower vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, there are no reports of circovirus-induced diseases in chickens. In this study, we identified a new strain of chicken circovirus (CCV) by PacBio third-generation sequencing samples from chickens with acute gastroenteritis in a Shandong commercial broiler farm in China. The complete genome of CCV was verified by inverse PCR. Genomic analysis revealed that CCV codes two inverse open reading frames (ORFs), and a potential stem-loop structure was present at the 5′ end with a structure typical of a circular virus. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosome-length haplotigs for yak and cattle from trio binning assembly of an F1 hybrid

Background Assemblies of diploid genomes are generally unphased, pseudo-haploid representations that do not correctly reconstruct the two parental haplotypes present in the individual sequenced. Instead, the assembly alternates between parental haplotypes and may contain duplications in regions where the parental haplotypes are sufficiently different. Trio binning is an approach to genome assembly that uses short reads from both parents to classify long reads from the offspring according to maternal or paternal haplotype origin, and is thus helped rather than impeded by heterozygosity. Using this approach, it is possible to derive two assemblies from an individual, accurately representing both parental contributions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

RNA sequencing: the teenage years.

Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an indispensable tool for transcriptome-wide analysis of differential gene expression and differential splicing of mRNAs. However, as next-generation sequencing technologies have developed, so too has RNA-seq. Now, RNA-seq methods are available for studying many different aspects of RNA biology, including single-cell gene expression, translation (the translatome) and RNA structure (the structurome). Exciting new applications are being explored, such as spatial transcriptomics (spatialomics). Together with new long-read and direct RNA-seq technologies and better computational tools for data analysis, innovations in RNA-seq are contributing to a fuller understanding of RNA biology, from questions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Galacto-oligosaccharides modulate the juvenile gut microbiome and innate immunity to improve broiler chicken performance

Improvements in growth performance and health are key goals in broiler chicken production. Inclusion of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in broiler feed enhanced the growth rate and feed conversion of chickens relative to a calorie-matched control diet. Comparison of the cecal microbiota identified key differences in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. Increased levels of L. johnsonii in GOS-fed juvenile birds at the expense of L. crispatus was linked to improved performance (growth rate and market weight). Investigation of the innate immune responses highlighted increases of ileal and cecal IL-17A gene expression counterposed to a decrease in IL-10 and IL-17F. Quantification of the autochthonous…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

High satellite repeat turnover in great apes studied with short- and long-read technologies.

Satellite repeats are a structural component of centromeres and telomeres, and in some instances their divergence is known to drive speciation. Due to their highly repetitive nature, satellite sequences have been understudied and underrepresented in genome assemblies. To investigate their turnover in great apes, we studied satellite repeats of unit sizes up to 50?bp in human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, using unassembled short and long sequencing reads. The density of satellite repeats, as identified from accurate short reads (Illumina), varied greatly among great ape genomes. These were dominated by a handful of abundant repeated motifs, frequently…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome sequence analysis of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from mice caught on poultry farms in the mid 1990s.

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Early Sex-chromosome Evolution in the Diploid Dioecious Plant Mercurialis annua.

Suppressed recombination allows divergence between homologous sex chromosomes and the functionality of their genes. Here, we reveal patterns of the earliest stages of sex-chromosome evolution in the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua on the basis of cytological analysis, de novo genome assembly and annotation, genetic mapping, exome resequencing of natural populations, and transcriptome analysis. The genome assembly contained 34,105 expressed genes, of which 10,076 were assigned to linkage groups. Genetic mapping and exome resequencing of individuals across the species range both identified the largest linkage group, LG1, as the sex chromosome. Although the sex chromosomes of M. annua are karyotypically…

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