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Thursday, May 28, 2020

Webinar: Increasing solve rates for rare and Mendelian diseases with long-read sequencing

Dr. Wenger gives attendees an update on PacBio’s long-read sequencing and variant detection capabilities on the Sequel II System and shares recommendations on how to design your own study using HiFi reads. Then, Dr. Sund from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center describes how she has used long-read sequencing to solve rare neurological diseases involving complex structural rearrangements that were previously unsolved with standard methods.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The bracteatus pineapple genome and domestication of clonally propagated crops.

Domestication of clonally propagated crops such as pineapple from South America was hypothesized to be a ‘one-step operation’. We sequenced the genome of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus CB5 and assembled 513?Mb into 25 chromosomes with 29,412 genes. Comparison of the genomes of CB5, F153 and MD2 elucidated the genomic basis of fiber production, color formation, sugar accumulation and fruit maturation. We also resequenced 89 Ananas genomes. Cultivars ‘Smooth Cayenne’ and ‘Queen’ exhibited ancient and recent admixture, while ‘Singapore Spanish’ supported a one-step operation of domestication. We identified 25 selective sweeps, including a strong sweep containing a pair of tandemly duplicated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study of Growth and Body-Shape-Related Traits in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) Using ddRAD Sequencing.

Large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is an economically important marine fish species of China. Due to overfishing and marine pollution, the wild stocks of this croaker have collapsed in the past decades. Meanwhile, the cultured croaker is facing the difficulties of reduced genetic diversity and low growth rate. To explore the molecular markers related to the growth traits of croaker and providing the related SNPs for the marker-assisted selection, we used double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to dissect the genetic bases of growth traits in a cultured population and identify the SNPs that associated with important growth traits by…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome assembly provides insights into the genome evolution and flowering regulation of orchardgrass.

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is an important forage grass for cultivating livestock worldwide. Here, we report an ~1.84-Gb chromosome-scale diploid genome assembly of orchardgrass, with a contig N50 of 0.93 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 6.08 Mb and a super-scaffold N50 of 252.52 Mb, which is the first chromosome-scale assembled genome of a cool-season forage grass. The genome includes 40 088 protein-coding genes, and 69% of the assembled sequences are transposable elements, with long terminal repeats (LTRs) being the most abundant. The LTRretrotransposons may have been activated and expanded in the grass genome in response to environmental changes during the Pleistocene between 0 and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Chinese chestnut genome: a reference for species restoration

Forest tree species are increasingly subject to severe mortalities from exotic pests, diseases, and invasive organisms, accelerated by climate change. Forest health issues are threatening multiple species and ecosystem sustainability globally. While sources of resistance may be available in related species, or among surviving trees, introgression of resistance genes into threatened tree species in reasonable time frames requires genome-wide breeding tools. Asian species of chestnut (Castanea spp.) are being employed as donors of disease resistance genes to restore native chestnut species in North America and Europe. To aid in the restoration of threatened chestnut species, we present the assembly of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 isolated from the Arctic seawater of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

The genus Pseudomonas is highly metabolically diverse and has colonized a wide range of ecological niches. The strain Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 was isolated from Arctic seawater (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) using dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as the sole carbon source. To better understand its role in the Arctic coastal ecosystem, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain DMSP-1 was completely sequenced. The genome contained a circular chromosome of 6,282,445?bp with an average GC content of 60.01?mol%. A total of 5510 protein coding genes, 70 tRNA genes and 19 rRNA genes were obtained. However, no genes encoding known enzymes associated with DMSP catabolism were identified in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A chromosome-level genome of black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, provides insights into the evolution of live birth.

Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is a teleost species where eggs are fertilized internally and retained in the maternal reproductive system, where they undergo development until live birth (termed viviparity). In the present study, we report a chromosome-level black rockfish genome assembly. High-throughput transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq and ATAC-seq), coupled with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence, identify several candidate genes for maternal preparation, sperm storage and release, and hatching. We propose that zona pellucida (ZP) proteins retain sperm at the oocyte envelope, while genes in two distinct astacin metalloproteinase subfamilies serve to release sperm from the ZP and free the embryo…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Early Sex-chromosome Evolution in the Diploid Dioecious Plant Mercurialis annua.

Suppressed recombination allows divergence between homologous sex chromosomes and the functionality of their genes. Here, we reveal patterns of the earliest stages of sex-chromosome evolution in the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua on the basis of cytological analysis, de novo genome assembly and annotation, genetic mapping, exome resequencing of natural populations, and transcriptome analysis. The genome assembly contained 34,105 expressed genes, of which 10,076 were assigned to linkage groups. Genetic mapping and exome resequencing of individuals across the species range both identified the largest linkage group, LG1, as the sex chromosome. Although the sex chromosomes of M. annua are karyotypically…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

De novo genome assembly of the endangered Acer yangbiense, a plant species with extremely small populations endemic to Yunnan Province, China.

Acer yangbiense is a newly described critically endangered endemic maple tree confined to Yangbi County in Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was included in a programme for rescuing the most threatened species in China, focusing on “plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)”.We generated 64, 94, and 110 Gb of raw DNA sequences and obtained a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. yangbiense through a combination of Pacific Biosciences Single-molecule Real-time, Illumina HiSeq X, and Hi-C mapping, respectively. The final genome assembly is ~666 Mb, with 13 chromosomes covering ~97% of the genome and scaffold N50 sizes of 45 Mb.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Survey of the Bradysia odoriphaga Transcriptome Using PacBio Single-Molecule Long-Read Sequencing.

The damage caused by Bradysia odoriphaga is the main factor threatening the production of vegetables in the Liliaceae family. However, few genetic studies of B. odoriphaga have been conducted because of a lack of genomic resources. Many long-read sequencing technologies have been developed in the last decade; therefore, in this study, the transcriptome including all development stages of B. odoriphaga was sequenced for the first time by Pacific single-molecule long-read sequencing. Here, 39,129 isoforms were generated, and 35,645 were found to have annotation results when checked against sequences available in different databases. Overall, 18,473 isoforms were distributed in 25 various…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Accumulation Mechanism of Anthocyanins in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Cotyledons and Flowers.

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a valuable crop which can produce multiple human beneficial secondary metabolites, for example, the anthocyanins in sprouts and flowers. However, as the predominant group of visible polyphenols in pigmentation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the anthocyanin biosynthesis within buckwheat. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of green and red common buckwheat cultivars was carried out through RNA sequencing. Overall, 3727 and 5323 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in flowers and cotyledons, respectively. Through GO and KEGG analysis, we revealed that DEGs in flowers and cotyledons are predominately involved in biosynthesis of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The genomes of pecan and Chinese hickory provide insights into Carya evolution and nut nutrition.

Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) and Chinese hickory (C. cathayensis) are important commercially cultivated nut trees in the genus Carya (Juglandaceae), with high nutritional value and substantial health benefits.We obtained >187.22 and 178.87 gigabases of sequence, and ~288× and 248× genome coverage, to a pecan cultivar (“Pawnee”) and a domesticated Chinese hickory landrace (ZAFU-1), respectively. The total assembly size is 651.31 megabases (Mb) for pecan and 706.43 Mb for Chinese hickory. Two genome duplication events before the divergence from walnut were found in these species. Gene family analysis highlighted key genes in biotic and abiotic tolerance, oil, polyphenols, essential amino acids, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome Sequencing Illustrates the Genetic Basis of the Pharmacological Properties of Gloeostereum incarnatum.

Gloeostereum incarnatum is a precious edible mushroom that is widely grown in Asia and known for its useful medicinal properties. Here, we present a high-quality genome of G. incarnatum using the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform. The G. incarnatum genome, which is the first complete genome to be sequenced in the family Cyphellaceae, was 38.67 Mbp, with an N50 of 3.5 Mbp, encoding 15,251 proteins. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, the Cyphellaceae diverged ~174 million years ago. Several genes and gene clusters associated with lignocellulose degradation, secondary metabolites, and polysaccharide biosynthesis were identified in G. incarnatum, and compared with other…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A chromosomal-scale genome assembly of Tectona grandis reveals the importance of tandem gene duplication and enables discovery of genes in natural product biosynthetic pathways.

Teak, a member of the Lamiaceae family, produces one of the most expensive hardwoods in the world. High demand coupled with deforestation have caused a decrease in natural teak forests, and future supplies will be reliant on teak plantations. Hence, selection of teak tree varieties for clonal propagation with superior growth performance is of great importance, and access to high-quality genetic and genomic resources can accelerate the selection process by identifying genes underlying desired traits.To facilitate teak research and variety improvement, we generated a highly contiguous, chromosomal-scale genome assembly using high-coverage Pacific Biosciences long reads coupled with high-throughput chromatin conformation…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Divergent evolution in the genomes of closely related lacertids, Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata, and implications for speciation.

Lacerta viridis and Lacerta bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades, respectively) that, until recently, were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed the first high-quality de novo genome assemblies for both L. viridis and L. bilineata through Illumina and PacBio sequencing, with annotation support provided from transcriptome sequencing of several tissues. To estimate gene flow…

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