April 21, 2020  |  

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It is noteworthy that tet(X4)-positive E.?coli strains, including isolates co-harbouring mcr-1, have been widely detected in pigs, chickens, soil and dust samples in China. In vivo murine models demonstrated that the presence of Tet(X4) led to tigecycline treatment failure. Consequently, the emergence of plasmid-mediated Tet(X4) challenges the clinical efficacy of the entire family of tetracycline antibiotics. Importantly, our study raises concern that the plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance may further spread into various ecological niches and into clinical high-risk pathogens. Collective efforts are in urgent need to preserve the potency of these essential antibiotics.


April 21, 2020  |  

Closed Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 Group Strain C600.

Escherichia coli strain C600 is a prototypical K-12 derived laboratory strain which has been broadly used for molecular microbiology and bacterial physiology studies since its isolation in 1954. Here, we present the closed genome sequence of E. coli strain C600, retrieved from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 23724).


April 21, 2020  |  

Antimicrobial resistance-encoding plasmid clusters with heterogeneous MDR regions driven by IS26 in a single Escherichia coli isolate.

IS26-flanked transposons played an increasingly important part in the mobilization and development of resistance determinants. Heterogeneous resistance-encoding plasmid clusters with polymorphic MDR regions (MRRs) conferred by IS26 in an individual Escherichia coli isolate have not yet been detected.To characterize the complete sequence of a novel blaCTX-M-65- and fosA3-carrying IncZ-7 plasmid with dynamic MRRs from an E. coli isolate, and to depict the mechanism underlying the spread of resistance determinants and genetic polymorphisms.The molecular characterization of a strain carrying blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 was analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MLST. The transferability of a plasmid bearing blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 was determined by conjugation assays, and the complete structure of the plasmid was obtained by Illumina, PacBio and conventional PCR mapping, respectively. The circular forms derived from IS26-flanked transposons were detected by reverse PCR and sequencing.A novel IncZ-7 plasmid pEC013 (~118kb) harbouring the blaCTX-M-65 and fosA3 genes was recovered from E. coli isolate EC013 belonging to D-ST117. The plasmid was found to have heterogeneous and dynamic MRRs in an individual strain and the IS26-flanked composite transposon-derived circular intermediates were identified and characterized in pEC013.The heterogeneous MRRs suggested that a single plasmid may actually be a cluster of plasmids with the same backbone but varied MRRs, reflecting the plasmid’s heterogeneity and the survival benefits of having a response to antimicrobial-related threatening conditions in an individual strain. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


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