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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing of “Faecalibaculum rodentium” ALO17, isolated from C57BL/6J laboratory mouse feces.

Intestinal microorganisms affect host physiology, including ageing. Given the difficulty in controlling for human studies of the gut microbiome, mouse models provide an alternative avenue to study such relationships. In this study, we report on the complete genome of “Faecalibaculum rodentium” ALO17, a bacterium that was isolated from the faeces of a 9-month-old female C57BL/6J mouse. This strain will be utilized in future in vivo studies detailing the relationships between the gut microbiome and ageing.The whole genome sequence of “F. rodentium” ALO17 was obtained using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) technique on a PacBio instrument. The assembled genome consisted of 2,542,486 base…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Soil bacterial communities are shaped by temporal and environmental filtering: evidence from a long-term chronosequence.

Soil microbial communities are abundant, hyper-diverse and mediate global biogeochemical cycles, but we do not yet understand the processes mediating their assembly. Current hypothetical frameworks suggest temporal (e.g. dispersal limitation) and environmental (e.g. soil pH) filters shape microbial community composition; however, there is limited empirical evidence supporting this framework in the hyper-diverse soil environment, particularly at large spatial (i.e. regional to continental) and temporal (i.e. 100 to 1000 years) scales. Here, we present evidence from a long-term chronosequence (4000 years) that temporal and environmental filters do indeed shape soil bacterial community composition. Furthermore, nearly 20 years of environmental monitoring allowed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of a novel fusion transcript between human relaxin-1 (RLN1) and human relaxin-2 (RLN2) in prostate cancer.

Simultaneous expression of highly homologous RLN1 and RLN2 genes in prostate impairs their accurate delineation. We used PacBio SMRT sequencing and RNA-Seq in LNCaP cells in order to dissect the expression of RLN1 and RLN2 variants. We identified a novel fusion transcript comprising the RLN1 and RLN2 genes and found evidence of its expression in the normal and prostate cancer tissues. The RLN1-RLN2 fusion putatively encodes RLN2 isoform with the deleted secretory signal peptide. The identification of the fusion transcript provided information to determine unique RLN1-RLN2 fusion and RLN1 regions. The RLN1-RLN2 fusion was co-expressed with RLN1 in LNCaP cells,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Atmospheric N deposition alters connectance, but not functional potential among saprotrophic bacterial communities.

The use of co-occurrence patterns to investigate interactions between micro-organisms has provided novel insight into organismal interactions within microbial communities. However, anthropogenic impacts on microbial co-occurrence patterns and ecosystem function remain an important gap in our ecological knowledge. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. This ecosystem-level response occurred concomitantly with compositional changes in saprophytic fungi and bacteria. Here, we investigated the influence of experimental N deposition on biotic interactions among forest floor bacterial assemblages by employing phylogenetic and molecular…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single molecule RNA sequencing uncovers trans-splicing and improves annotations in Anopheles stephensi.

Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has recently been used to obtain full-length cDNA sequences that improve genome annotation and reveal RNA isoforms. Here, we used one such method called isoform sequencing from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence a cDNA library from the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. More than 600 000 full-length cDNAs, referred to as reads of insert, were identified. Owing to the inherently high error rate of PacBio sequencing, we tested different approaches for error correction. We found that error correction using Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) generated more data than using the default SMRT pipeline. The full-length error-corrected PacBio…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First draft genome of an iconic clownfish species (Amphiprion frenatus).

Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare groups to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus). We obtained 17,801 assembled scaffolds, containing a total of 26,917 genes. The completeness of the assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Massive lateral transfer of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma from its plant-associated hosts.

Unlike most other fungi, molds of the genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are aggressive parasites of other fungi and efficient decomposers of plant biomass. Although nutritional shifts are common among hypocrealean fungi, there are no examples of such broad substrate versatility as that observed in Trichoderma. A phylogenomic analysis of 23 hypocrealean fungi (including nine Trichoderma spp. and the related Escovopsis weberi) revealed that the genus Trichoderma has evolved from an ancestor with limited cellulolytic capability that fed on either fungi or arthropods. The evolutionary analysis of Trichoderma genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes and auxiliary proteins (pcwdCAZome, 122 gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Early life stages of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) are sensitive to fish feed containing the anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron.

Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0?°C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5?°C and pH 7.6). Two weeks’ exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW?+?DFB. In OAW?+?DFB feeding and swimming activity…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A whole genome assembly of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and prediction of genes with roles in metabolism and sex determination.

Haematobia irritans, commonly known as the horn fly, is a globally distributed blood-feeding pest of cattle that is responsible for significant economic losses to cattle producers. Chemical insecticides are the primary means for controlling this pest but problems with insecticide resistance have become common in the horn fly. To provide a foundation for identification of genomic loci for insecticide resistance and for discovery of new control technology, we report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the horn fly genome. The assembled genome is 1.14 Gb, comprising 76,616 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 23 Kb. Using RNA-Seq data, we have…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome biology of a novel lineage of planctomycetes widespread in anoxic aquatic environments.

Anaerobic strains affiliated with a novel order-level lineage of the Phycisphaerae class were retrieved from the suboxic zone of a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat and anoxic sediments of solar salterns. Genome sequences of five isolates were obtained and compared with metagenome-assembled genomes representing related uncultured bacteria from various anoxic aquatic environments. Gene content surveys suggest a strictly fermentative saccharolytic metabolism for members of this lineage, which could be confirmed by the phenotypic characterization of isolates. Genetic analyses indicate that the retrieved isolates do not have a canonical origin of DNA replication, but initiate chromosome replication at alternative sites possibly leading to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PBHoover and CigarRoller: a method for confident haploid variant calling on Pacific Biosciences data and its application to heterogeneous population analysis

Motivation: Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has important and underutilized advantages that amplification-based platforms lack. Lack of systematic error (e.g. GC-bias), complete de novo assembly (including large repetitive regions) without scaffolding, can be mentioned. SMRT sequencing, however suffers from high random error rate and low sequencing depth (older chemistries). Here, we introduce PBHoover, software that uses a heuristic calling algorithm in order to make base calls with high certainty in low coverage regions. This software is also capable of mixed population detection with high sensitivity. PBHoovertextquoterights CigarRoller attachment improves sequencing depth in low-coverage regions through CIGAR-string correction. Results: We tested…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conversion of methionine to cysteine in Lactobacillus paracasei depends on the highly mobile cysK-ctl-cysE gene cluster.

Milk and dairy products are rich in nutrients and are therefore habitats for various microbiomes. However, the composition of nutrients can be quite diverse, in particular among the sulfur containing amino acids. In milk, methionine is present in a 25-fold higher abundance than cysteine. Interestingly, a fraction of strains of the species L. paracasei – a flavor-enhancing adjunct culture species – can grow in medium with methionine as the sole sulfur source. In this study, we focus on genomic and evolutionary aspects of sulfur dependence in L. paracasei strains. From 24 selected L. paracasei strains, 16 strains can grow in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Massilia oculi sp. nov. CCUG 43427T (=DSM 26321T), the Type Strain of M. oculi, and Comparison with Genome Sequences of Other Massilia Strains.

Massilia oculi sp. nov. of type strain CCUG 43427T is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonspore-forming bacterium, which was recently isolated from the eye of a patient suffering from endophthalmitis and was described as novel species in Massilia genus. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of this strain by using Pacbio SMRT cell platform and compare this sequence with the genomes of 30 Massilia representative strains. Also, a comprehensive search was conducted for genes and proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. The genome of CCUG 43427T is 5,844,653 bp with 65.55% GC content. This genome contains four prophages and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Investigation of inter- and intraspecies variation through genome sequencing of Aspergillus section Nigri.

Aspergillus section Nigri comprises filamentous fungi relevant to biomedicine, bioenergy, health, and biotechnology. To learn more about what genetically sets these species apart, as well as about potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, we sequenced 23 genomes de novo, forming a full genome compendium for the section (26 species), as well as 6 Aspergillus niger isolates. This allowed us to quantify both inter- and intraspecies genomic variation. We further predicted 17,903 carbohydrate-active enzymes and 2,717 secondary metabolite gene clusters, which we condensed into 455 distinct families corresponding to compound classes, 49% of which are only found in single species. We…

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