Identification and characterization of chicken circovirus from commercial broiler chickens in China.
Circoviruses are found in many species, including mammals, birds, lower vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, there are no reports of circovirus-induced diseases in chickens. In this study, we identified a new strain of chicken circovirus (CCV) by PacBio third-generation sequencing samples from chickens with acute gastroenteritis in a Shandong commercial broiler farm in China. The complete genome of CCV was verified by inverse PCR. Genomic analysis revealed that CCV codes two inverse open reading frames (ORFs), and a potential stem-loop structure was present at the 5′ end with a structure typical of a circular virus. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that CCV formed an independent branch between mammalian and avian circovirus, and homology analysis indicated that the homology of CCV with 21 other known circoviruses was less than 40%. Thus, this CCV strain represents a new species in the genus Circovirus. The infection rate of CCV in 12 chickens with diarrhoea was 100%, but no CCV was found in healthy chickens, thereby indicating that the novel CCV strain is highly associated with acute infectious gastroenteritis in chickens. The emergence of a novel CCV in commercial broiler chickens is highly concerning for the broiler industry. © 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.