Bradyrhizobium is thought to be the largest and most diverse rhizobial genus, but this is not reflected in the number of described species. Although it was one of the first rhizobial genera recognised, its taxonomy remains complex. Various contemporary studies are showing that genome sequence information may simplify taxonomic decisions. Therefore, the growing availability of genomes for Bradyrhizobium will likely aid in the delineation and characterization of new species. In this study, we addressed two aims: first, we reviewed the availability and quality of available genomic resources for Bradyrhizobium. This was achieved by comparing genome sequences in terms of sequencing technologies used and estimated level of completeness for inclusion in genome-based phylogenetic analyses. Secondly, we utilized these genomes to investigate the taxonomic standing of Bradyrhizobium in light of its diverse lifestyles. Although genome sequences differed in terms of their quality and completeness, our data indicate that the use of these genome sequences is adequate for taxonomic purposes. By using these resources, we inferred a fully resolved, well-supported phylogeny. It separated Bradyrhizobium into seven lineages, three of which corresponded to the so-called supergroups known for the genus. Wide distribution of key lifestyle traits such as nodulation, nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis revealed that these traits have complicated evolutionary histories. We present the first robust Bradyrhizobium species phylogeny based on genome sequence information for investigating the evolution of this important assemblage of bacteria. Furthermore, this study provides the basis for using genome sequence information as a resource to make important taxonomic decisions, particularly at the species and genus levels. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Genome Sequences of Two Azospirillum sp. Strains, TSA2S and TSH100, Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria with N2O Mitigation Abilities.
Azospirillum sp. strains TSA2S and TSH100 are plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria with the capacity to mitigate N2O from agricultural soil. They were isolated from the rhizosphere of paddy soil in Tokyo, Japan. Here, we present the genome sequences of these two strains.Copyright © 2019 Gao et al.
Plantibacter flavus, Curtobacterium herbarum, Paenibacillus taichungensis, and Rhizobium selenitireducens Endophytes Provide Host-Specific Growth Promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana, Basil, Lettuce, and Bok Choy Plants.
A collection of bacterial endophytes isolated from stem tissues of plants growing in soils highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons were screened for plant growth-promoting capabilities. Twenty-seven endophytic isolates significantly improved the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants in comparison to that of uninoculated control plants. The five most beneficial isolates, one strain each of Curtobacterium herbarum, Paenibacillus taichungensis, and Rhizobium selenitireducens and two strains of Plantibacter flavus were further examined for growth promotion in Arabidopsis, lettuce, basil, and bok choy plants. Host-specific plant growth promotion was observed when plants were inoculated with the five bacterial strains. P. flavus strain M251 increased the total biomass and total root length of Arabidopsis plants by 4.7 and 5.8 times, respectively, over that of control plants and improved lettuce and basil root growth, while P. flavus strain M259 promoted Arabidopsis shoot and root growth, lettuce and basil root growth, and bok choy shoot growth. A genome comparison between P. flavus strains M251 and M259 showed that both genomes contain up to 70 actinobacterial putative plant-associated genes and genes involved in known plant-beneficial pathways, such as those for auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase production. This study provides evidence of direct plant growth promotion by Plantibacter flavusIMPORTANCE The discovery of new plant growth-promoting bacteria is necessary for the continued development of biofertilizers, which are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient alternatives to conventional chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizer effects on plant growth can be inconsistent due to the complexity of plant-microbe interactions, as the same bacteria can be beneficial to the growth of some plant species and neutral or detrimental to others. We examined a set of bacterial endophytes isolated from plants growing in a unique petroleum-contaminated environment to discover plant growth-promoting bacteria. We show that strains of Plantibacter flavus exhibit strain-specific plant growth-promoting effects on four different plant species.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Aquella oligotrophica gen. nov. sp. nov.: A new member of the family Neisseriaceae isolated from laboratory tap water.
A bacterial strain designated as P08T was isolated from laboratory tap water during a water quality assessment in University of Malaya, Malaysia. The strain was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and aerobic bacterium. Complete genome of P08T comprised of a 2,820,660 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 36.43%. Both 16S rRNA phylogeny and phylogenetic tree inferred from the core gene matrix demonstrated that P08T formed a hitherto unknown subline within the family Neisseriaceae. Ortho average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) values and the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) calculated from complete genome sequence indicated low relatedness between P08T and its phylogenetic neighbors. Respiratory quinone analysis revealed Q-8 as the only detectable quinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C14:0 , iso-C15:0 , and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c). The polar lipids consisted of uncharacterized aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. All aspects of phenotypic and phylogenetic data suggested that strain P08T represents a novel genus within family Neisseriaceae, for which the name Aquella gen. nov. is proposed. The type species of the genus is Aquella oligotrophica sp. nov., and the type strain is P08T (=LMG 29629T =DSM 100970T ). © 2019 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain ORS3257, an Efficient Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from Cowpea in Senegal.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS3257, which forms efficient symbioses with cowpea, peanut, or groundnut. These genomic data will be useful to identify genes associated with symbiotic performance and host compatibility on several legumes, including Aeschynomene species, with which a Nod-independent type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent symbiosis can be established.
Nodule bacteria from the cultured legume Phaseolus dumosus (belonging to the Phaseolus vulgaris cross-inoculation group) with common tropici phenotypic characteristics and symbiovar but distinctive phylogenomic position and chromid.
Phaseolus dumosus is an endemic species from mountain tops in Mexico that was found in traditional agriculture areas in Veracruz, Mexico. P. dumosus plants were identified by ITS sequences and their nodules were collected from agricultural fields or from trap plant experiments in the laboratory. Bacteria from P. dumosus nodules were identified as belonging to the phaseoli-etli-leguminosarum (PEL) or to the tropici group by 16S rRNA gene sequences. We obtained complete closed genomes from two P. dumosus isolates CCGE531 and CCGE532 that were phylogenetically placed within the tropici group but with a distinctive phylogenomic position and low average nucleotide identity (ANI). CCGE531 and CCGE532 had common phenotypic characteristics with tropici type B rhizobial symbionts. Genome synteny analysis and ANI showed that P. dumosus isolates had different chromids and our analysis suggests that chromids have independently evolved in different lineages of the Rhizobium genus. Finally, we considered that P. dumosus and Phaseolus vulgaris plants belong to the same cross-inoculation group since they have conserved symbiotic affinites for rhizobia.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.
A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a competitive edge for the survival of N. soli Y48 in oil-polluted environments and reflect the adaptation of coexisting bacteria to distinct nutritional niches.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Iron-associated protein interaction networks reveal the key functional modules related to survival and virulence of Pasteurella multocida.
Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Comparative iron-associated genes of P. multocida among different animal hosts towards their interaction networks have not been fully revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the iron-associated genes from core- and pan-genomes of fourteen P. multocida strains and to construct iron-associated protein interaction networks using genome-scale network analysis which might be associated with the virulence. Results showed that these fourteen strains had 1587 genes in the core-genome and 3400 genes constituting their pan-genome. Out of these, 2651 genes associated with iron transport and metabolism were selected to construct the protein interaction networks and 361 genes were incorporated into the iron-associated protein interaction network (iPIN) consisting of nine different iron-associated functional modules. After comparing with the virulence factor database (VFDB), 21 virulence-associated proteins were determined and 11 of these belonged to the heme biosynthesis module. From this study, the core heme biosynthesis module and the core outer membrane hemoglobin receptor HgbA were proposed as candidate targets to design novel antibiotics and vaccines for preventing pasteurellosis across the serotypes or animal hosts for enhanced precision agriculture to ensure sustainability in food security. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bradyrhizobium nanningense sp. nov., Bradyrhizobium guangzhouense sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium zhanjiangense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of peanut in Southeast China.
Nine slow-growing rhizobia isolated from effective nodules on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) were characterized to clarify the taxonomic status using a polyphasic approach. They were assigned to the genus Bradyrhizobium on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. MLSA of concatenated glnII-recA-dnaK genes classified them into three species represented by CCBAU 53390T, CCBAU 51670T and CCBAU 51778T, which presented the closest similarity to B. guangxiense CCBAU 53363T, B. guangdongense CCBAU 51649T and B. manausense BR 3351T, B. vignae 7-2T and B. forestalis INPA 54BT, respectively. The dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization) and ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) between the genomes of the three representative strains and type strains for the closest Bradyrhizobium species were less than 42.1% and 91.98%, respectively, below the threshold of species circumscription. Effective nodules could be induced on peanut and Lablab purpureus by all representative strains, while Vigna radiata formed effective nodules only with CCBAU 53390T and CCBAU 51778T. Phenotypic characteristics including sole carbon sources and growth features supported the phylogenetic results. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic features, strains CCBAU 53390T, CCBAU 51670T and CCBAU 51778T are designated the type strains of three novel species, for which the names Bradyrhizobium nanningense sp. nov., Bradyrhizobium guangzhouense sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium zhanjiangense sp. nov. are proposed, respectively.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Integrating DNA methylation and gene expression data in the development of the soybean-Bradyrhizobium N2-fixing symbiosis.
Very little is known about the role of epigenetics in the differentiation of a bacterium from the free-living to the symbiotic state. Here genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation changes between these states is described using the model of symbiosis between soybean and its root nodule-forming, nitrogen-fixing symbiont, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. PacBio resequencing of the B. diazoefficiens genome from both states revealed 43,061 sites recognized by five motifs with the potential to be methylated genome-wide. Of those sites, 3276 changed methylation states in 2921 genes or 35.5% of all genes in the genome. Over 10% of the methylation changes occurred within the symbiosis island that comprises 7.4% of the genome. The CCTTGAG motif was methylated only during symbiosis with 1361 adenosines methylated among the 1700 possible sites. Another 89 genes within the symbiotic island and 768 genes throughout the genome were found to have methylation and significant expression changes during symbiotic development. Of those, nine known symbiosis genes involved in all phases of symbiotic development including early infection events, nodule development, and nitrogenase production. These associations between methylation and expression changes in many B. diazoefficiens genes suggest an important role of the epigenome in bacterial differentiation to the symbiotic state.
Symbiosis island shuffling with abundant insertion sequences in the genomes of extra-slow-growing strains of soybean bradyrhizobia.
Extra-slow-growing bradyrhizobia from root nodules of field-grown soybeans harbor abundant insertion sequences (ISs) and are termed highly reiterated sequence-possessing (HRS) strains. We analyzed the genome organization of HRS strains with the focus on IS distribution and symbiosis island structure. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we consistently detected several plasmids (0.07 to 0.4 Mb) in the HRS strains (NK5, NK6, USDA135, 2281, USDA123, and T2), whereas no plasmids were detected in the non-HRS strain USDA110. The chromosomes of the six HRS strains (9.7 to 10.7 Mb) were larger than that of USDA110 (9.1 Mb). Using MiSeq sequences of 6 HRS and 17 non-HRS strains mapped to the USDA110 genome, we found that the copy numbers of ISRj1, ISRj2, ISFK1, IS1632, ISB27, ISBj8, and IS1631 were markedly higher in HRS strains. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the HRS strain NK6 had four small plasmids (136 to 212 kb) and a large chromosome (9,780 kb). Strong colinearity was found between 7.4-Mb core regions of the NK6 and USDA110 chromosomes. USDA110 symbiosis islands corresponded mainly to five small regions (S1 to S5) within two variable regions, V1 (0.8 Mb) and V2 (1.6 Mb), of the NK6 chromosome. The USDA110 nif gene cluster (nifDKENXSBZHQW-fixBCX) was split into two regions, S2 and S3, where ISRj1-mediated rearrangement occurred between nifS and nifB. ISs were also scattered in NK6 core regions, and ISRj1 insertion often disrupted some genes important for survival and environmental responses. These results suggest that HRS strains of soybean bradyrhizobia were subjected to IS-mediated symbiosis island shuffling and core genome degradation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.
Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3(T), M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3(T), M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3(T) was iso-C15?:?0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99?% similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922(T) (87.3?% similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437(T) (87.4?%). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3(T), M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2553(T)?=?DSM 27344(T)). © 2015 IUMS.
Genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from group I.1b enriched from Everglades soil reveals novel genomic features of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea.
The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we describe the first complete genome of soil archaeon Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis, which has been reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a highly enriched culture obtained from an agricultural soil. The AOA enrichment was sequenced with the high throughput next generation sequencing platforms from Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent. The de novo assembly of sequences resulted in one 2.95 Mb contig. Annotation of the reconstructed genome revealed many similarities of the basic metabolism with the rest of sequenced AOA. Ca. N. evergladensis belongs to the group I.1b and shares only 40% of whole-genome homology with the closest sequenced relative Ca. N. gargensis. Detailed analysis of the genome revealed coding sequences that were completely absent from the group I.1a. These unique sequences code for proteins involved in control of DNA integrity, transporters, two-component systems and versatile CRISPR defense system. Notably, genomes from the group I.1b have more gene duplications compared to the genomes from the group I.1a. We suggest that the presence of these unique genes and gene duplications may be associated with the environmental versatility of this group.
Genome sequencing of two Neorhizobium galegae strains reveals a noeT gene responsible for the unusual acetylation of the nodulation factors.
The species Neorhizobium galegae comprises two symbiovars that induce nodules on Galega plants. Strains of both symbiovars, orientalis and officinalis, induce nodules on the same plant species, but fix nitrogen only in their own host species. The mechanism behind this strict host specificity is not yet known. In this study, genome sequences of representatives of the two symbiovars were produced, providing new material for studying properties of N. galegae, with a special interest in genomic differences that may play a role in host specificity.The genome sequences confirmed that the two representative strains are much alike at a whole-genome level. Analysis of orthologous genes showed that N. galegae has a higher number of orthologs shared with Rhizobium than with Agrobacterium. The symbiosis plasmid of strain HAMBI 1141 was shown to transfer by conjugation under optimal conditions. In addition, both sequenced strains have an acetyltransferase gene which was shown to modify the Nod factor on the residue adjacent to the non-reducing-terminal residue. The working hypothesis that this gene is of major importance in directing host specificity of N. galegae could not, however, be confirmed.Strains of N. galegae have many genes differentiating them from strains of Agrobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium. However, the mechanism behind their ecological difference is not evident. Although the final determinant for the strict host specificity of N. galegae remains to be identified, the gene responsible for the species-specific acetylation of the Nod factors was identified in this study. We propose the name noeT for this gene to reflect its role in symbiosis.
The genome of the intracellular bacterium of the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum: a blueprint for thriving in and out of symbiosis
BACKGROUND:Symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates are rare examples of living systems that are virtually independent of photosynthetic primary production. These associations have evolved multiple times in marine habitats, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents and reducing sediments, characterized by steep gradients of oxygen and reduced chemicals. Due to difficulties associated with maintaining these symbioses in the laboratory and culturing the symbiotic bacteria, studies of chemosynthetic symbioses rely heavily on culture independent methods. The symbiosis between the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum, and its intracellular symbiont is a model for chemosynthetic symbioses given its accessibility in intertidal environments and the ability to maintain it under laboratory conditions. To better understand this symbiosis, the genome of the S. velum endosymbiont was sequenced.RESULTS:Relative to the genomes of obligate symbiotic bacteria, which commonly undergo erosion and reduction, the S. velum symbiont genome was large (2.7Mb), GC-rich (51%), and contained a large number (78) of mobile genetic elements. Comparative genomics identified sets of genes specific to the chemosynthetic lifestyle and necessary to sustain the symbiosis. In addition, a number of inferred metabolic pathways and cellular processes, including heterotrophy, branched electron transport, and motility, suggested that besides the ability to function as an endosymbiont, the bacterium may have the capacity to live outside the host.CONCLUSIONS:The physiological dexterity indicated by the genome substantially improves our understanding of the genetic and metabolic capabilities of the S. velum symbiont and the breadth of niches the partners may inhabit during their lifecycle.