April 21, 2020  |  

Tracking short-term changes in the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 in clinical settings.

To track stepwise changes in genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance in rapidly evolving OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14, an emerging carbapenem-resistant high-risk clone, in clinical settings.Twenty-six K. pneumoniae ST14 isolates were collected by the Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance system over the course of 1 year. Isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and MIC determinations using 33 antibiotics from 14 classes.Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing identified 72 unique SNP sites spanning the chromosomes of the isolates, dividing them into three clusters (I, II and III). The initial isolate possessed two plasmids with 18 antibiotic-resistance genes, including blaOXA-232, and exhibited resistance to 11 antibiotic classes. Four other plasmids containing 12 different resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-15 and strA/B, were introduced over time, providing additional resistance to aztreonam and streptomycin. Moreover, chromosomal integration of insertion sequence Ecp1-blaCTX-M-15 mediated the inactivation of mgrB responsible for colistin resistance in four isolates from cluster III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST14 resistant to both carbapenem and colistin in South Korea. Furthermore, although some acquired genes were lost over time, the retention of 12 resistance genes and inactivation of mgrB provided resistance to 13 classes of antibiotics.We describe stepwise changes in OXA-232-producing K. pneumoniae ST14 in vivo over time in terms of antimicrobial resistance. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emerging high-risk K. pneumoniae clones and provide reference data for future outbreaks.Copyright © 2019 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

An Outbreak of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Linked with an Index Case of Community-Acquired KPC-Producing Isolate: Epidemiological Investigation and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis.

Aims: A hospital outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPN) linked with an index case of community-acquired infection occurred in an urban tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Therefore, we performed an outbreak investigation and whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis to trace the outbreak and investigate the molecular characteristics of the isolates. Results: From October 2014 to January 2015, we identified a cluster of three patients in the neurosurgery ward with sputum cultures positive for carbapenem-resistant KPN. An epidemiological investigation, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was performed to trace the origins of this outbreak. The index patient’s infection was community acquired. Active surveillance cultures using perirectal swabbing from exposed patients, identified one additional patient with KPC-producing KPN colonization. WGS analyses using PacBio RSII instruments were performed for four linked isolates. WGS revealed a genetic linkage of the four isolates belonging to the same sequence type (ST307). All KPN isolates harbored conjugative resistance plasmids, which has blaKPC-2 carbapenemase genes contained within the Tn4401 “a” isoform and other resistance genes. However, WGS showed only three isolates among four KPC-producing KPN were originated from a common origin. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the challenge that KPC-2-producing KPN with the conjugative resistance plasmid may spread not only in hospitals but also in community, and WGS can help to accurately characterize the outbreak.


April 21, 2020  |  

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It is noteworthy that tet(X4)-positive E.?coli strains, including isolates co-harbouring mcr-1, have been widely detected in pigs, chickens, soil and dust samples in China. In vivo murine models demonstrated that the presence of Tet(X4) led to tigecycline treatment failure. Consequently, the emergence of plasmid-mediated Tet(X4) challenges the clinical efficacy of the entire family of tetracycline antibiotics. Importantly, our study raises concern that the plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance may further spread into various ecological niches and into clinical high-risk pathogens. Collective efforts are in urgent need to preserve the potency of these essential antibiotics.


April 21, 2020  |  

IncC blaKPC-2-positive plasmid characterized from ST648 Escherichia coli.

This study describes the characterization of type 2 IncC plasmids pC-Ec20-KPC and pC-Ec2-KPC, carrying blaKPC-2 gene, from two multiresistant E. coli recovered in the University Hospital of Larissa, in 2018.Escherichia coli, Ec-2Lar and Ec-20Lar, were recovered from rectal swabs from two patients, during the monthly surveillance cultures. Transfer experiments by conjugation were carried out with E. coli recipients. blaKPC-carrying plasmids were characterized by S1 profiling. Isolates were typed by MLST. Whole bacterial genome was sequenced using the Sequel platform.Both E. coli isolates, belonging to ST648, transferred the blaKPC-2 to E. coli A15 laboratory strain by conjugation. Plasmid analysis revealed that the transconjugants harbored blaKPC-positive plasmids of different sizes. Analysis of plasmid sequences showed that, in both isolates, blaKPC-2 gene was carried on type 2 IncC plasmids pC-Ec20-KPC and pC-Ec2-KPC. Both plasmids carried the ARI-B resistance island, which consisted of several resistance genes, intact and truncated copies of several mobile elements, and a 25,571-bp segment harboring coding sequences for an iron transporter. The blaKPC-2 gene was part of the transposon Tn4401a, which was bounded by direct repeats of 5 bp (TCCTT) suggesting its transposition into the IncC plasmids.To our knowledge, this is the first report on complete nucleotide sequences of type 2 IncC plasmids. These findings, which hypothesize the acquisition of KPC-2-encoding transposon Tn4401a by an IncC replicon, indicate the ongoing need for molecular surveillance studies of MDR pathogens. Additionally, they underline the increasing clinical importance of the IncC plasmid family.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Pandemic spread of blaKPC-2 among Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 in China is associated with horizontal transfer mediated by IncFII-like plasmids.

This study aimed to investigate the spread of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae and to illustrate the mechanism of dissemination of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) ST11 in China.A total of 354 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from four hospitals in China and were characterized by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were used to identify the subtypes of K. pneumoniae ST11. PCR-based amplification and sequencing were performed to analyze Tn1721 transposons and IncFII-like plasmids. Electroporation experiments and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis were used to reveal the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene.As the primary type(87.1%) of KPC-Kp, K. pneumoniae ST11 was not predominant in nonKPC-Kp(3.1%). ST11 KPC-Kp was clonally heterogeneous and could be further classified into eleven MGE types and fourteen PFGE subtypes. Five Tn1721-blaKPC-2 variants were identified on IncFII-like plasmids. The detection rate of IncFII-like plasmids was much higher in ST11 KPC-Kp (100%) compared with non-ST11 KPC-Kp (16.0%) and the nonKPC-Kp group (7.5%). Moreover, the IncFII plasmid (with IIa replicon) was primarily detected on the MGE-F type (61.7%). The IncFIIk plasmid (with IIk replicon) was clustered into two subtypes: MGE-A (28.3%) and -F (41.5%). The detection of the IncFII and IncFIIk plasmids on MGE-A was 57.1% (20/35) and 42.9% (15/35), respectively.We revealed a close correlation between ST11 KPC-Kp and IncFII-like plasmids. Horizontal transfer mediated by IncFII-like plasmids plays an important role in the pandemic expansion of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae ST11 in China. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.


April 21, 2020  |  

Potential KPC-2 carbapenemase reservoir of environmental Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae isolates from the effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant in Japan.

Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae adapt to saline water environments and are the most predominant Aeromonas species isolated from estuaries. Here, we isolated antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Aeromonas strains (A. hydrophila GSH8-2 and A. caviae GSH8M-1) carrying the carabapenemase blaKPC-2 gene from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent in Tokyo Bay (Japan) and determined their complete genome sequences. GSH8-2 and GSH8M-1 were classified as newly assigned sequence types ST558 and ST13, suggesting no supportive evidence of clonal dissemination. The strains appear to have acquired blaKPC-2 -positive IncP-6-relative plasmids (pGSH8-2 and pGSH8M-1-2) that share a common backbone with plasmids in Aeromonas sp. ASNIH3 isolated from hospital wastewater in the United States, A. hydrophila WCHAH045096 isolated from sewage in China, other clinical isolates (Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli), and wastewater isolates (Citrobacter, Pseudomonas and other Aeromonas spp.). In addition to blaKPC-2 , pGSH8M-1-2 carries an IS26-mediated composite transposon including a macrolide resistance gene, mph(A). Although Aeromonas species are opportunistic pathogens, they could serve as potential environmental reservoir bacteria for carbapenemase and AMR genes. AMR monitoring from WWTP effluents will contribute to the detection of ongoing AMR dissemination in the environment and might provide an early warning of potential dissemination in clinical settings and communities. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology Reports published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Dissemination of multiple carbapenem resistance genes in an in vitro gut model simulating the human colon.

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) pose a major global health risk. Mobile genetic elements account for much of the increasing CPE burden.To investigate CPE colonization and the impact of antibiotic exposure on subsequent resistance gene dissemination within the gut microbiota using a model to simulate the human colon.Gut models seeded with CPE-negative human faeces [screened with BioMérieux chromID® CARBA-SMART (Carba-Smart), Cepheid Xpert® Carba-R assay (XCR)] were inoculated with distinct carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (KPC, NDM) and challenged with imipenem or piperacillin/tazobactam then meropenem. Resistant populations were enumerated daily on selective agars (Carba-Smart); CPE genes were confirmed by PCR (XCR, Check-Direct CPE Screen for BD MAX™). CPE gene dissemination was tracked using PacBio long-read sequencing.CPE populations increased during inoculation, plateauing at ~105?log10?cfu/mL in both models and persisting throughout the experiments (>65?days), with no evidence of CPE ‘washout’. After antibiotic administration, there was evidence of interspecies plasmid transfer of blaKPC-2 (111742?bp IncFII/IncR plasmid, 99% identity to pKpQIL-D2) and blaNDM-1 (~170?kb IncFIB/IncFII plasmid), and CPE populations rose from <0.01% to >45% of the total lactose-fermenting populations in the KPC model. Isolation of a blaNDM-1K. pneumoniae with one chromosomal single-nucleotide variant compared with the inoculated strain indicated clonal expansion within the model. Antibiotic administration exposed a previously undetected K. pneumoniae encoding blaOXA-232 (KPC model).CPE exposure can lead to colonization, clonal expansion and resistance gene transfer within intact human colonic microbiota. Furthermore, under antibiotic selective pressure, new resistant populations emerge, emphasizing the need to control exposure to antimicrobials. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


April 21, 2020  |  

A novel plasmid carrying carbapenem-resistant gene blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

A carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1011 (ST463) was isolated from a patient in a surgical intensive care unit. PCR detection showed that PA1011 carried the blaKPC-2 gene. A plasmid was isolated and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 and PacBio RSII sequencing platforms. The plasmid was named pPA1011 and carried the carbapenem-resistant gene blaKPC-2. pPA1011 was a 62,793 bp in length with an average G+C content of 58.8%. It was identified as a novel plasmid and encoded a novel genetic environment of blaKPC-2 gene (?IS6-Tn3-ISKpn8-blaKPC-2-ISKpn6-IS26).


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole genome assembly and functional portrait of hypervirulent extensively drug-resistant NDM-1 and KPC-2 co-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae of capsular serotype K2 and ST86.

To characterize an emergent carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) strain, NUHL30457, which co-produces NDM-1 and KPC-2 carbapenemases.We performed WGS analysis on a clinical carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CP-hvKP) strain NUHL30457. Sequence data were analysed using comparative genomics and phylogenetics. WGS was used to perform MLST, capsular genotyping and identification of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. The virulence of NUHL30457 was analysed by serum killing assay, neutrophil phagocytosis and mouse lethality assay.The NUHL30457 strain was carbapenem resistant and belonged to ST86 and serotype K2. A significant increase in resistance to serum killing and antiphagocytosis was found in the NUHL30457 strain compared with the reference strain. The murine lethality assay showed an LD50 of 2.5?×?102?cfu for the NUHL30457 strain, indicating hypervirulence. WGS revealed that NUHL30457 has a single 5.3?Mb chromosome (57.53% G?+?C content) and four plasmids in the range 49.2-215.7?kb. The incompatibility group (Inc)N plasmid p30457-4 carried the blaNDM-1 and qnrS1 genes. The IncFII(K) plasmid p30457-3 also carried an array of resistance elements, including blaCTX-M-65, blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-2. The IncHI1/IncFIB plasmid p30457-1, which carried virulence genes, was identical to a pLVPK plasmid reported previously.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate an ST86 hvKP strain that co-produces NDM-1 and KPC-2 carbapenemase. Further investigation is required to reinforce our understanding of the epidemiology and virulence mechanisms of this clinically significant CP-hvKP. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


April 21, 2020  |  

Real time monitoring of Aeromonas salmonicida evolution in response to successive antibiotic therapies in a commercial fish farm.

Our ability to predict evolutionary trajectories of pathogens in response to antibiotic pressure is one of the promising leverage to fight against the present antibiotic resistance worldwide crisis. Yet, few studies tackled this question in situ at the outbreak level, due to the difficulty to link a given pathogenic clone evolution with its precise antibiotic exposure over time. In this study, we monitored the real-time evolution of an Aeromonas salmonicida clone in response to successive antibiotic and vaccine therapies in a commercial fish farm. The clone was responsible for a four-year outbreak of furunculosis within a Recirculating Aquaculture System Salmo salar farm in China, and we reconstructed the precise tempo of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) acquisition events during this period. The resistance profile provided by the acquired MGEs closely mirrored the antibiotics used to treat the outbreak, and we evidenced that two subclonal groups developed similar resistances although unrelated MGE acquisitions. Finally, we also demonstrated the efficiency of vaccination in outbreak management and its positive effect on antibiotic resistance prevalence. Our study provides unprecedented knowledge critical to understand evolutionary trajectories of resistant pathogens outside the laboratory. © 2019 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

A Phage-Like Plasmid Carrying blaKPC-2 Gene in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Background: Lateral gene transfer plays a central role in the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite their clinical significance, there is little information regarding the mobile genetic elements and mechanism of acquisition and propagation of lateral genes in P. aeruginosa, and they remain largely unknown. Objectives: The present study characterized the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strain BH9. Methods:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 sequencing was performed using the long-read PacBio SMRT platform and the Ion Proton System. De novo assembly was carried out using the SMRT pipeline and Canu, and gene prediction and annotation were performed using Prokka and RAST. Results:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 exhibited a 7.1 Mb circular chromosome. However, the blaKPC-2 gene is located in an additional contig composed by a small plasmid pBH6 from P. aeruginosa strain BH6 and several phage-related genes. Further analysis revealed that the beginning and end of the contig contain identical sequences, supporting a circular plasmid structure. This structure spans 41,087 bp, exhibiting all the Mu-like phage landmarks. In addition, 5-bp direct repeats (GGATG) flanking the pBH6 ends were found, strongly indicating integration of the Mu-like phage into the pBH6 plasmid. Mu phages are commonly found in P. aeruginosa. However, for the first time showing a potential impact in shaping the vehicles of the dissemination of antimicrobial (e.g., plasmid pBH6) resistance genes in the Pseudomonas genus. Conclusion: pBH6 captured the Mu-like Phage BH9, creating a co-integrate pBH6::Phage BH9, and this phage-plasmid complex may represent novel case of a phage-like plasmid.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of an NDM-5 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST156 isolate from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains has posed a severe threat to public health in recent years. The mobile elements carrying the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactqtamase (NDM) gene have been regarded as the major mechanism leading to the rapid increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinics and animals.We describe an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli strain, ECCRA-119 (sequence type 156 [ST156]), isolated from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China. ECCRA-119 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate that exhibited resistance to 27 antimicrobial compounds, including imipenem and meropenem, as detected by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The complete genome sequence of the ECCRA-119 isolate was also obtained using the PacBio RS II platform. Eleven acquired resistance genes were identified in the chromosome; four were detected in plasmid pTB201, while six were detected in plasmid pTB202. Importantly, the carbapenem-resistant gene blaNDM-5 was detected in the IncX3 plasmid pTB203. In addition, seven virulence genes and one metal-resistance gene were also detected. The results of conjugation experiments and the transfer regions identification indicated that the blaNDM-5-harboring plasmid pTB203 could be transferred between E. coli strains.The results reflected the severe bacterial resistance in a poultry farm in Zhejiang province and increased our understanding of the presence and transmission of the blaNDM-5 gene.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome plasticity favours double chromosomal Tn4401b-blaKPC-2 transposon insertion in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 clone.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 235 is a clone that possesses an extraordinary ability to acquire mobile genetic elements and has been associated with the spread of resistance genes, including genes that encode for carbapenemases. Here, we aim to characterize the genetic platforms involved in resistance dissemination in blaKPC-2-positive P. aeruginosa ST235 in Colombia.In a prospective surveillance study of infections in adult patients attended in five ICUs in five distant cities in Colombia, 58 isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered, of which, 27 (46.6%) were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular analysis showed that 6 (22.2%) and 4 (14.8%) isolates harboured the blaVIM and blaKPC-2 genes, respectively. The four blaKPC-2-positive isolates showed a similar PFGE pulsotype and belonged to ST235. Complete genome sequencing of a representative ST235 isolate shows a unique chromosomal contig of 7097.241?bp with eight different resistance genes identified and five transposons: a Tn6162-like with ant(2?)-Ia, two Tn402-like with ant(3?)-Ia and blaOXA-2 and two Tn4401b with blaKPC-2. All transposons were inserted into the genomic islands. Interestingly, the two Tn4401b copies harbouring blaKPC-2 were adjacently inserted into a new genomic island (PAGI-17) with traces of a replicative transposition process. This double insertion was probably driven by several structural changes within the chromosomal region containing PAGI-17 in the ST235 background.This is the first report of a double Tn4401b chromosomal insertion in P. aeruginosa, just within a new genomic island (PAGI-17). This finding indicates once again the great genomic plasticity of this microorganism.


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