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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Antibiotic susceptibility of plant-derived lactic acid bacteria conferring health benefits to human.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) confer health benefits to human when administered orally. We have recently isolated several species of LAB strains from plant sources, such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, and medicinal plants. Since antibiotics used to treat bacterial infection diseases induce the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria in intestinal microflora, it is important to evaluate the susceptibility of LAB strains to antibiotics to ensure the safety and security of processed foods. The aim of the present study is to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against several plant-derived LAB strains. When aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as streptomycin (SM), kanamycin (KM), and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of Alteromonas sp. Strain RKMC-009, Isolated from Xestospongia muta via In Situ Culturing Using an Isolation Chip Diffusion Chamber.

We report the draft whole-genome sequence of Alteromonas sp. strain RKMC-009, which was isolated in situ from the sponge Xestospongia muta in San Salvador, The Bahamas, using an isolation chip (ichip). Automated biosynthetic gene cluster analysis using antiSMASH 4.0 predicted the presence of 22 biosynthetic gene clusters.Copyright © 2019 MacIntyre et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The ADEP Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces hawaiiensis NRRL 15010 Reveals an Accessory clpP Gene as a Novel Antibiotic Resistance Factor.

The increasing threat posed by multiresistant bacterial pathogens necessitates the discovery of novel antibacterials with unprecedented modes of action. ADEP1, a natural compound produced by Streptomyces hawaiiensis NRRL 15010, is the prototype for a new class of acyldepsipeptide (ADEP) antibiotics. ADEP antibiotics deregulate the proteolytic core ClpP of the bacterial caseinolytic protease, thereby exhibiting potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including multiresistant pathogens. ADEP1 and derivatives, here collectively called ADEP, have been previously investigated for their antibiotic potency against different species, structure-activity relationship, and mechanism of action; however, knowledge on the biosynthesis of the natural compound and producer self-resistance have…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Heterologous Expression of Ilicicolin H Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Production of a New Potent Antifungal Reagent, Ilicicolin J.

Ilicicolin H is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent targeting mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 reductase. Unfortunately, ilicicolin H shows reduced activities in vivo. Here, we report our effort on the identification of ilicicolin H biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) by genomic sequencing a producing strain, Neonectria sp. DH2, and its heterologous production in Aspergillus nidulans. In addition, a shunt product with similar antifungal activities, ilicicolin J, was uncovered. This effort would provide a base for future combinatorial biosynthesis of ilicicolin H analogues. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the backbone of ilicicolin H is assembled by a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide synthethase (IliA), and then offloaded with a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Harnessing long-read amplicon sequencing to uncover NRPS and Type I PKS gene sequence diversity in polar desert soils.

The severity of environmental conditions at Earth’s frigid zones present attractive opportunities for microbial biomining due to their heightened potential as reservoirs for novel secondary metabolites. Arid soil microbiomes within the Antarctic and Arctic circles are remarkably rich in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, bacterial phyla known to be prolific producers of natural products. Yet the diversity of secondary metabolite genes within these cold, extreme environments remain largely unknown. Here, we employed amplicon sequencing using PacBio RS II, a third generation long-read platform, to survey over 200 soils spanning twelve east Antarctic and high Arctic sites for natural product-encoding genes, specifically targeting…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of the Novonestmycin-Producing Strain Streptomyces sp. Z26, Isolated from Potato Rhizosphere in Morocco.

Streptomyces sp. strain Z26 exhibited antifungal activity and turned out to be a producer of the secondary metabolites novonestmycin A and B. The 6.5-Mb draft genome gives insight into the complete secondary metabolite production capacity and builds the basis to find and locate the biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the novonestmycins.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic characterization of Nocardia seriolae strains isolated from diseased fish.

Members of the genus Nocardia are widespread in diverse environments; a wide range of Nocardia species are known to cause nocardiosis in several animals, including cat, dog, fish, and humans. Of the pathogenic Nocardia species, N. seriolae is known to cause disease in cultured fish, resulting in major economic loss. We isolated two N. seriolae strains, CK-14008 and EM15050, from diseased fish and sequenced their genomes using the PacBio sequencing platform. To identify their genomic features, we compared their genomes with those of other Nocardia species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that N. seriolae shares a common ancestor with a putative human…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome mining identifies cepacin as a plant-protective metabolite of the biopesticidal bacterium Burkholderia ambifaria.

Beneficial microorganisms are widely used in agriculture for control of plant pathogens, but a lack of efficacy and safety information has limited the exploitation of multiple promising biopesticides. We applied phylogeny-led genome mining, metabolite analyses and biological control assays to define the efficacy of Burkholderia ambifaria, a naturally beneficial bacterium with proven biocontrol properties but potential pathogenic risk. A panel of 64 B.?ambifaria strains demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against priority plant pathogens. Genome sequencing, specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster mining and metabolite analysis revealed an armoury of known and unknown pathways within B.?ambifaria. The biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization and Complete Genome Analysis of the Carbazomycin B-Producing Strain Streptomyces luteoverticillatus SZJ61.

Members of marine Actinobacteria have been highly regarded as potentially important sources of antimicrobial compounds. Here, we isolated a strain of Actinobacteria, SZJ61, and showed that it inhibits the in vitro growth of fungi pathogenic to plants. This new isolate was identified as Streptomyces luteoverticillatus by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. Antifungal compounds were isolated from S. luteoverticillatus strain SZJ61 and characterized as carbazomycin B by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We then sequenced the genome of the S. luteoverticillatus SZJ61 strain, which consists of only one 7,367,863 bp linear chromosome that has a G+C content of 72.05%. Thirty-five putative biosynthetic gene…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Actinosynnema pretiosum X47, An Industrial Strain that Produces the Antibiotic Ansamitocin AP-3.

Ansamitocins are extraordinarily potent antitumor agents. Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3), which is produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum, has been developed as a cytotoxic drug for breast cancer. Despite its importance, AP-3 is of limited applicability because of the low production yield. A. pretiosum strain X47 was developed from A. pretiosum ATCC 31565 by mutation breeding and shows a relatively high AP-3 yield. Here, we analyzed the A. pretiosum X47 genome, which is ~8.13 Mb in length with 6693 coding sequences, 58 tRNA genes, and 15 rRNA genes. The DNA sequence of the ansamitocin biosynthetic gene cluster is highly similar to that of the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

FadR1, a pathway-specific activator of fidaxomicin biosynthesis in Actinoplanes deccanensis Yp-1.

Fidaxomicin, an 18-membered macrolide antibiotic, is highly active against Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Though the biosynthetic mechanism of fidaxomicin has been well studied, little is known about its regulatory mechanism. Here, we reported that FadR1, a LAL family transcriptional regulator in the fidaxomicin cluster of Actinoplanes deccanensis Yp-1, acts as an activator for fidaxomicin biosynthesis. The disruption of fadR1 abolished the ability to synthesize fidaxomicin, and production could be restored by reintegrating a single copy of fadR1. Overexpression of fadR1 resulted in an approximately 400 % improvement in fidaxomicin production. Electrophoretic mobility shift…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces spongiicola HNM0071T, a marine sponge-associated actinomycete producing staurosporine and echinomycin

Streptomyes spongiicola HNM0071T is a novel marine sponge-associated actinomycete with potential to produce antitumor agents including staurosporine and echinomycin. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. spongiicola HNM0071, which consists of a linear chromosome of 7,180,417?bp, 5669 protein coding genes, 18 rRNA genes, and 66 tRNA genes. Twenty-seven putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were found in the genome. Among them, the staurosporine and echinomycin gene clusters have been described completely. The complete genome information presented here will enable us to investigate the biosynthetic mechanism of two well-known antitumor antibiotics and to discover novel secondary metabolites with potential…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Primary transcriptome and translatome analysis determines transcriptional and translational regulatory elements encoded in the Streptomyces clavuligerus genome.

Determining transcriptional and translational regulatory elements in GC-rich Streptomyces genomes is essential to elucidating the complex regulatory networks that govern secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) expression. However, information about such regulatory elements has been limited for Streptomyces genomes. To address this limitation, a high-quality genome sequence of ß-lactam antibiotic-producing Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27 064 is completed, which contains 7163 newly annotated genes. This provides a fundamental reference genome sequence to integrate multiple genome-scale data types, including dRNA-Seq, RNA-Seq and ribosome profiling. Data integration results in the precise determination of 2659 transcription start sites which reveal transcriptional and translational regulatory elements,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Structure elucidation and biosynthetic gene cluster analysis of caniferolides A-D, new bioactive 36-membered macrolides from the marine-derived Streptomyces caniferus CA-271066.

Bioassay-guided isolation based on the antifungal activity of a culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces caniferus CA-271066 led to the discovery of new 36-membered polyol macrolides, caniferolides A-D (1-4). Their connectivity was determined by spectroscopic methods including ESITOF-MS and 1D/2D NMR. The relative stereochemistry of each stereocluster in these compounds was established using NOE analysis, the universal database method and J-based configuration analysis, further assisted by comparisons with NMR data of structurally related macrolides. Genome sequencing followed by detailed bioinformatics analysis led to the identification of the corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster and allowed the prediction of the stereochemical outcome…

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