HiFi sequencing on the PacBio Sequel II System enables complete microbial community profiling of complex metagenomic samples using whole genome shotgun sequences. With HiFi sequencing, highly accurate long reads overcome the challenges posed by the presence of intergenic and extragenic repeat elements in microbial genomes, thus greatly improving phylogenetic profiling and sequence assembly. Recent improvements in library construction protocols enable HiFi sequencing starting from as low as 5 ng of input DNA. Here, we demonstrate comparative analyses of a control sample of known composition and a human fecal sample from varying amounts of input genomic DNA (1 ug, 200 ng, 5 ng), and present the corresponding library preparation workflows for standard, low input, and Ultra-Low methods. We demonstrate that the metagenome assembly, taxonomic assignment, and gene finding analyses are comparable across all methods for both samples, providing access to HiFi sequencing even for DNA-limited sample types.
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a Bifidobacterium longum isolate, that of strain ZJ1, and this strain showed a cholesterol degradation ability that is greater than that of five strains we chose for comparison (Bifidobacterium longum 536, B. infantis 1912, B. longum 1941, B. breve ATCC 15698, B. infantis ATCC 17930). The draft genome of strain ZJ1 consists of 2,414,672?bp, with 2,042 protein-coding genes, 69 noncoding RNA genes, and 60.16% G+C content.Copyright © 2019 Jin et al.
Genomic variation and strain-specific functional adaptation in the human gut microbiome during early life.
The human gut microbiome matures towards the adult composition during the first years of life and is implicated in early immune development. Here, we investigate the effects of microbial genomic diversity on gut microbiome development using integrated early childhood data sets collected in the DIABIMMUNE study in Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. We show that gut microbial diversity is associated with household location and linear growth of children. Single nucleotide polymorphism- and metagenomic assembly-based strain tracking revealed large and highly dynamic microbial pangenomes, especially in the genus Bacteroides, in which we identified evidence of variability deriving from Bacteroides-targeting bacteriophages. Our analyses revealed functional consequences of strain diversity; only 10% of Finnish infants harboured Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, a subspecies specialized in human milk metabolism, whereas Russian infants commonly maintained a probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum strain in infancy. Groups of bacteria contributing to diverse, characterized metabolic pathways converged to highly subject-specific configurations over the first two years of life. This longitudinal study extends the current view of early gut microbial community assembly based on strain-level genomic variation.