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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation sequencing and large genome assemblies.

The next-generation sequencing (NGS) revolution has drastically reduced time and cost requirements for sequencing of large genomes, and also qualitatively changed the problem of assembly. This article reviews the state of the art in de novo genome assembly, paying particular attention to mammalian-sized genomes. The strengths and weaknesses of the main sequencing platforms are highlighted, leading to a discussion of assembly and the new challenges associated with NGS data. Current approaches to assembly are outlined and the various software packages available are introduced and compared. The question of whether quality assemblies can be produced using short-read NGS data alone, or…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Computational solutions to large-scale data management and analysis.

Today we can generate hundreds of gigabases of DNA and RNA sequencing data in a week for less than US$5,000. The astonishing rate of data generation by these low-cost, high-throughput technologies in genomics is being matched by that of other technologies, such as real-time imaging and mass spectrometry-based flow cytometry. Success in the life sciences will depend on our ability to properly interpret the large-scale, high-dimensional data sets that are generated by these technologies, which in turn requires us to adopt advances in informatics. Here we discuss how we can master the different types of computational environments that exist –…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A gapless genome sequence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea.

Following earlier incomplete and fragmented versions of a genome sequence for the grey mould Botrytis cinerea, we here report a gapless, near-finished genome sequence for B. cinerea strain B05.10. The assembly comprises 18 chromosomes and was confirmed by an optical map and a genetic map based on ~75 000 SNP markers. All chromosomes contain fully assembled centromeric regions, and 10 chromosomes have telomeres on both ends. The genetic map consisted of 4153 cM and comparison of genetic distances with the physical distances identified 40 recombination hotspots. The linkage map also identified two mutations, located in the previously described genes Bos1…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the dairy isolate Lactobacillus acidipiscis ACA-DC 1533.

Lactobacillus acidipiscis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium belonging to the Lactobacillus salivarius clade. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of L. acidipiscis isolated from traditional Greek Kopanisti cheese. Strain ACA-DC 1533 may play a key role in the strong organoleptic characteristics of Kopanisti cheese. Copyright © 2017 Kazou et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing and analysis of Talaromyces pinophilus provide insights into biotechnological applications.

Species from the genus Talaromyces produce useful biomass-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites. However, these enzymes and secondary metabolites are still poorly understood and have not been explored in depth because of a lack of comprehensive genetic information. Here, we report a 36.51-megabase genome assembly of Talaromyces pinophilus strain 1-95, with coverage of nine scaffolds of eight chromosomes with telomeric repeats at their ends and circular mitochondrial DNA. In total, 13,472 protein-coding genes were predicted. Of these, 803 were annotated to encode enzymes that act on carbohydrates, including 39 cellulose-degrading and 24 starch-degrading enzymes. In addition, 68 secondary metabolism gene clusters…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066, the producer of norvancomycin.

Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066 is an actinomycete exploited commercially in China for the production of norvancomycin, an important glycopeptide antibiotic structurally close to the well-known vancomycin. The availability of the complete genome sequence of CPCC200066 would greatly strengthen our understanding of the regulation pattern of norvancomycin biosynthesis and ultimately improve its production, as well as potentiate discoveries of novel bioactive compounds. Here we report the complete genome sequence of A. orientalis CPCC200066, a circular chromosome consisting of 9,490,992bp. Forty putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, including norvancomycin, were predicted, covering 20.3% of the whole genome. To facilitate genetic manipulation of this…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a natural compounds producer, Streptomyces violaceus S21.

The complete genome sequence of Streptomyces violaceus strain S21, a valuable natural compounds producer isolated from the forest soil, is firstly presented here. The genome comprised 7.91M bp, with a G + C content of 72.65%. A range of genes involved in pathways of secondary product biosynthesis were predicted. The genome sequence is available at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession number CP020570. This genome is annotated with 6856 predicted genes identifying the natural product biosynthetic gene clusters in S. violaceus.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Unlocking the biological potential of Euglena gracilis: evolution, cell biology and significance to parasitism

Photosynthetic euglenids are major components of aquatic ecosystems and relatives of trypanosomes. Euglena gracilis has considerable biotechnological potential and great adaptability, but exploitation remains hampered by the absence of a comprehensive gene catalogue. We address this by genome, RNA and protein sequencing: the E. gracilis genome is >2Gb, with 36,526 predicted proteins. Large lineage-specific paralog families are present, with evidence for flexibility in environmental monitoring, divergent mechanisms for metabolic control, and novel solutions for adaptation to extreme environments. Contributions from photosynthetic eukaryotes to the nuclear genome, consistent with the shopping bag model are found, together with transitions between kinetoplastid and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The state of whole-genome sequencing

Over the last decade, a technological paradigm shift has slashed the cost of DNA sequencing by over five orders of magnitude. Today, the cost of sequencing a human genome is a few thousand dollars, and it continues to fall. Here, we review the most cost-effective platforms for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as well as emerging technologies that may displace or complement these. We also discuss the practical challenges of generating and analyzing WGS data, and how WGS has unlocked new strategies for discovering genes and variants underlying both rare and common human diseases.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Variable presence of the inverted repeat and plastome stability in Erodium.

Several unrelated lineages such as plastids, viruses and plasmids, have converged on quadripartite genomes of similar size with large and small single copy regions and a large inverted repeat (IR). Except for Erodium (Geraniaceae), saguaro cactus and some legumes, the plastomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms display this structure. The functional significance of the IR is not understood and Erodium provides a system to examine the role of the IR in the long-term stability of these genomes. We compared the degree of genomic rearrangement in plastomes of Erodium that differ in the presence and absence of the IR.We sequenced 17 new…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Vibrio anguillarum is genetically and phenotypically unaffected by long-term continuous exposure to the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid.

Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish-pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any potential side effects of long-term exposure of the pathogen to the probionts or…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved hybrid de novo genome assembly of domesticated apple (Malus x domestica).

Domesticated apple (Malus?×?domestica Borkh) is a popular temperate fruit with high nutrient levels and diverse flavors. In 2012, global apple production accounted for at least one tenth of all harvested fruits. A high-quality apple genome assembly is crucial for the selection and breeding of new cultivars. Currently, a single reference genome is available for apple, assembled from 16.9?×?genome coverage short reads via Sanger and 454 sequencing technologies. Although a useful resource, this assembly covers only ~89 % of the non-repetitive portion of the genome, and has a relatively short (16.7 kb) contig N50 length. These downsides make it difficult to apply this…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the high-natamycin-producing strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus F607.

Streptomyces gilvosporeus strain F607 is a producer of high levels of natamycin used in the fermentation industry. In this study, the complete genome sequence of strain F607 was determined. This genome sequence provides a basis for understanding natamycin biosynthesis and regulation in a high-natamycin-producing strain and will aid in the development of useful strategies for improving industrial strains.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular preadaptation to antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian subcontinent.

Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani: the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified. Here, we analyzed the development of resistance to trivalent antimonials (SbIII) upon experimental selection in ISC1 and CG strains. We observed that (i)…

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